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New York State Museum Bulletin
Application pending for admission as second-class matter at the Post Office at Albany N Y
imder the act of August 24, 1913 ' '
ALBANY, N. Y.
January i, 191 6
New York State Museum
John M. Clarke, Director
THE QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK-
GRANITE, GNEISS, TRAP AND MARBLE I/'
D. H. NEWLANd'
The development of the quarry in-
dustry in New York 8
General features of rocks and their
commercial adaptability 12
The origin and classification of
Rock structures 16
Differential parting 21
Chemical and physical properties
of rocks which influence their
commercial uses 24
The examination and testing of
Main features of the geology of
New York State 50
The crystalline silicate rocks 58
Preliminary discussion and defi- 58
nition of terms 58
Syenite and anorthosite 60
Gabbro " 52
Diabase or trap 63
Gneiss and schist , 64
Pegmatite '.'.'.'.'.. 66
Field occurrence of the granites,
gneisses, traps etc 69
The St Lawrence River granites 69
Granitic rocks in the western
Granitic rocks in the eastern
Granitic rocks in the Highlands
The dark-colored, basic rocks. .
The occurrence of pegmatite in
New York ' j^^
General features, field relations
and uses of pegmatites 154
The local distribution of pegma-
tites in New York State 160
The New York marble quarries.. 176
General characters of mai;bles ..176
Geology of the New York mar-
The Adirondack section 182
The Highlands — Taconic area. . 193
Nonmetamorphic marbles 203
Serpen tinous marbles; verde an-
tique and ophicalcite 205
THE UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OP NEW YORK
THE UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK
Regents of the University
With years when terms expire
1926 Pliny T. Sexton LL.B. LL.D.C/ia«c^//or - - Palmyra
1927 Albert Vander Veer M.D. M.A. Ph.D. LL.D.
Vice Chancellor Albany
1922 Chester S. Lord M.A. LL.D. ------ New York
1918 William Nottingham M.A. Ph.D. LL.D. - -Syracuse
192 1 Francis M. Carpenter ------- Mount Kisco
1923 Abram I. Elkus LL.B, D.C.L. ----- New York
1924 Adelbert Moot LL.D. ------- Buffalo
1925 Charles B. Alexander M.A. LL.B. LL.D.
Litt.D. ----------- Tuxedo
1919 John Moore ---------- Elmira
1 9 16 Walter Guest Kellogg B.A. - - - - - Ogdensburg
19 1 7 (Vacant)
President of the University
and Commissioner of Education
John H. Finley M.A. LL.D. L.H.D.
Deputy Commissioner and Assistant Commissioner for Elementary Edu cation
Thomas E. Finegan M.A. Pd.D. LL.D.
Assistant Commissioner for Higher Education
Augustus S. Downing M.A. L.H.D. LL.D.
Assistant Commissioner for Secondary Education
Charles P. Wheelock B.S. LL.D.
Director of State Library
James I. Wyer, Jr, M.L.S.
Director of Science and State Museum
John M. Clarke Ph.D. D.Sc. LL.D.
Chiefs and Directors of Divisions^
Administration, George M. Wiley M.A.
Agricultural and Industrial Education, Arthur D. Dean D.Sc,
Archives and History, James A. Holden B.A., Director
Attendance, James D. Sullivan
Educational Extension, William R. Watson B.S.
Examinations, Harlan H. Hornter M.A.
Inspections, Frai^k H. Wood M.A.
Law, Frank B. Gilbert B.A.
Library School, Frank K. Walter M.A. M.L.S.
School Libraries, Sherman Williams Pd.D.
Statistics, Hiram C. Case
Visual Instruction, Alfred W. Abrams Ph.B.
The University of the State of Nezv York
Science Department, March 2, ipij
Dr John H. Finley
President of the University
Sir : I have the honor to transmit to you herewith and to recom-
mend for pubhcation as a bulletin of the State Museum, a manu-
script and illustrations of a report on The Quarry Materials of
New York — Granite, Gneiss, Trap and Marble, by David H.
Newland, Assistant State Geologist.
John M. Clarke
Approved for publication this i^th day of March ipij
President of the University
New York State Museum Bulletin
Application pending for admission as second-class matter at the Post Office at Albany, N. Y.,
under the act of August 24, 19 12
No. 181 ALBANY, N. Y. January i, 1916
New York State Museum
John M. Clarke, Director
THE QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK— GRANITE,
GNEISS, TRAP AND MARBLE
D. H. NEWLAND
This report is the partial fulfilment of a plan to describe the
quarry resources of the State from the present-day standpoint. It
was the original purpose to include in the report a description of
the sandstone and limestone quarries as well as those of the crystal-
line rocks. The task of collecting the information for a complete
report, however, would have involved a considerable delay in the
publication of the results of the first part of the investigation, which
covers the crystalline areas of the Adirondacks and southeastern
New York, and it was thought advisable to issue that part separately.
It is the hope of the writer that a second report on the stratified
rocks may be prepared within a reasonable time.
The division of the subject into two sections as outlined follows
a natural line of demarcation in the geographical distribution of the
formations ; it likewise has a basis in scientific and economic con-
siderations so apparent as to need no emphasis in this place.
The only description of the building stones of New York at all
complete that has been available hitherto is found in the two
bulletins by John C. Smock. The earlier^ of these (1888) was of
preliminary character, mainly devoted to the description of indi-
vidual quarries. The second,^ published in 1890, included most
IN. Y. State Mus. Bui. 3, Albany,
2N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 10, Albany, 1890.
8 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
of the descriptive matter of the earlier report but also contained
chapters on the use of stone in cities, on the durability of stone,
and the physical and chemical testing of stone ; it was one of the
first important quarry reports in this country to treat the subject
from the scientific standpoint. The physical determinations as
carried out for the report have little practical application at present,
as the theory and tedhnic of laboratory tests have been almost
revolutionized in the last few years. Naturally, there have also
been great changes in the economic situation of the local industry.
Reports of more restricted compass have been issued at different
times. A brief account of the New York State quarry industry
was given in the volumes of the Tenth Census.-^ A paper on the
quarries of southeastern New York, of descriptive character, by
E. C. Eckel," was published in the report of the State Geologist
for 1900. The limestones were described rather fully in 1901 by
H. Ries,^ and the bluestone industry by H. T. Dickinson in 1903.*
With few exceptions, all the quarry localities described in this
bulletin have been personally visited, the field work occupying parts
of the summers of 1912 and 1913. The samples obtained in the
field have been used for optical, physical and chemical investigations
in accordance with recent practice in the testing of quarry stones.
The writer has received valuable assistance in both the field and
laboratory from R. W. Jones of the Museum stafif, who is re-
sponsible for much of the chemical work undertaken for the report,
and from H. Mattimore of the bureau of research. State Depart-
ment of Highways, who carried out physical tests on many samples
of granites. To them and also to the individual quarry operators
who have extended numerous courtesies, the writer desires to ex-
press his obligations.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE QUARRY INDUSTRY IN
The extraction of stone for building and other purposes in this
State has gained prominence as an industry only within relatively
recent years. The use of stone in structures, however, goes back
to the colonial period. As the most available of the permanent
structural materials, it was employed by the early settlers in walls.
IV. 10, Washington, 1884.
2 Albany, 1902. Also printed separately.
3 N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 44, Albany, 1901.
* N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 61, Albany, 1903.
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK C)
foundations and occasionally for entire buildings, and there still
exist good examples of such work in many of the older com.-
munities where they have stood for two centuries and more.
The stone for the early masonry- was seldom quarried from solid
ledges. Very little of it was cut soar •otherwise prepared, but- it was
mostly laid as rubblework. .Field -Stones were the kind mainly used,
as they were nearly everywhere abundant and -the cheapest to secure,
and their removal from the land was desirable from an-. agricultural
standpoint. These stones, it may be remarked, are not indigenous
to the locality of their occurrence, but with the soil in which they
are found were transported from a more northerly latitude in the
sweep of the Laurentian ice sheet that finally extended over the
whole State. The bowlders consist of granite, gneiss, sandstone
and other rocks hard enough to resist the erosion of ice and water,
and of a durability tested bythousands of years exposure to the
weather. ; i-.ii -::■■
There seems no certainty as to>thg-place or time^of the \fitfst regular
quarry operations. Very likely the earliest work: was • somewhere
in the Hudson valley section, and the quarrying of limestone for the
manufacture of lime suggests itself '.as the object of the first steady
production of stone. Limestone was also required for the making
of iron which was estabhshed on a; permanent basis in New Yrork
State about 1751, when the Sterling furnace in Orangei county was
built. At the beginning of the last century the manufacture of lime
had become an important industry in the Hudson River valley.
About 1820 the manufacture. i.of m'^t-ural -.cement was started in
Ulster and Onondaga counties, the basis of the industry being an
impure limestone which by calcination and grinding makes a high-
grade hydraulic cement. From the beginning New York State held
a prominent place in the cement industry ; by 1840 Ulster county
alone was producing at the rate of 600,000 bai^rels a year, according
to Mather. The output of natural cenrcnf-Tncfeased to over 4,000,-
000 barrels a year, but about the year 1900 it beganrto Idecline owing
to the chfeapening of the cost of Portland cerjiertt." ' |
The construction of the Erie canal gave an impetus to the quarry-
ing of stone, since considerable quantities of dimension stone were
used in the canal locks. It also afforded means for the conveyance
of stone from the central and western parts of the State to the
more thickly settled region in the east. Thus the, Medina and
Onondaga building stones were ffiaWa^aif£tble?^^y~T§46 there had
developed a considerable trade in flagstone' which 'was o1>tained
from the same regions as now, that iSj' -from Ulster, Sullivan, Dekr
NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
ware and Greene counties, and was shipped to New York and other
cities along the coast. The annual product at that time is given
by Mather as 3.500,000 square feet.
The stone industry of the State was first made the subject of
detailed investigation in the work of the Tenth Census of 1880.
The information gathered by the census included notes on the
occurrence of building stone in the State and statistics of the
capital investment represented in the quarries, the number of em-
ployees and production. At that time New York ranked sixth
among the states in size of its quarry industry, with an output
valued at $1,261,495. The industry had then reached its present
stage of development so far as variety of products is concerned, but
was destined to great changes in technic and to a great increase of
The growth of the quarry industry was particularly rapid in the
decade from 1890 to 1900. This was a period of remarkable
advancement in all kinds of engineering work and manufacturing,
in which New York participated to its full share. The metallurgical
and chemical uses of limestone showed great increase and continued
to grow in the subsequent years. By the year 1900 the annual
product of the State had reached a value of $4,039,102 as shown
in the reports of the United States Geological Survey. This gave
New York third place in the list, next after Vermont, Pennsylvania,
as now, holding first rank.
In the year 191 3, the latest for which statistics are available, the
production was valued at $6,763,054, the vtaluati'on being placed on
the materials at the quarry and not including slate or stone used in
cement manufacture. The figures for the different products and
kinds of stone, as returned to the State Geological Survey, are as
Production of stone in New York in 1913
2 386 632
I 358 302
3 852 678
I 001 170
I 321 272
I 001 170
f3 670 719
$1 744 152
16 763 054
A review of the industry for the last few years shows that
progress has been rapid in some branches, while others have fairly
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK II
held their own, and that one or two branches have actually declined.
The trade in bluestone within the last seven or eight years has
fallen off about 50 per cent, owing to the increasing use of cement
in street work. The artificial structural materials — stucco, con-
crete and terra cotta — also have affected adversely the market for
building stone by which all quarries have been more or less affected.
It is impossible of course to predict whether the present popularity
of these materials will continue but it is. not likely that they will
make such great inroads upon the market for stone in the future
as in the past. The use of cement has had one compensating fea-
ture in that it has made a large demand for crushed stone though
this represents a much lower grade of product than building stone.
The quarries of limestone at present contribute more than one-
half of the total value of the stone products of the State, a ratio
which holds also in the country generally. It is the kind most com-
monly marketed for crushed stone, and is also extensively employed
in metallurgy and chemical manufactures.
12 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
GENERAL FEATURES OF ROCKS AND THEIR COMMER-
THE ORIGIN AND CLASSIFICATION OF ROCKS
Rocks may be defined in simplest 'terms as mineral aggregates.
To this definition there may be added also the quality of solidity,
an inseparable characteristic perhaps in the popular mind, though
not essential from the standpoint of the geologist. These aggre-
gates are made up of a variety of minerals, either singly or in
mechanical mixture. They also differ among themselves in their
structural features, in the manner in which the minerals are as-
sembled and held together, that is, their textures, and of course
according to origin. .
The consideration of origin is the most important for the classifi-
cation of rocks in the first instance. On that basis they may all
be divided into two general groups : ( i ) the igneous rocks, which
include all that have consolidated from a molten state and (2)
the sedimentary rocks, inclusive of all that have been deposited by
water, either in a state of suspension (mechanical action) or solu-
tion (chemical action). To the latter may be added also the small
class of wind-laid or eolian deposits which are closely allied with
the mechanical sediments in their structure and features of occur-
To these groups which embrace all rocks from the standpoint of
origin, it is custoimiary tO' add a third group of coordinate rank in
the classification, or (3) the metamorphic rocks. This group in-
cludes those members of either igneous or sedimentary derivation
that have undergone great changes which involve a physical re-
arrangement and also at times a chemical transformation of the
components with the development of a new set of minerals.
There is naturally no .sharp line of division between the meta-
morphic and the other groups ; on the other hand, the process of
change may be followed in many cases through all the stages from
the one to the other, as from an unaltered sediment like clay
through shale and slate to hard and thoroughly crystallized schist
or gneiss. It is the general practice, however, to place only the
more completely changed types in the metamorphic class, and
especially those whose origin may not readily be discovered.
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 13
The igneous and metamorphic rocks are distinguished from the
sedimentary by their crystalline character, the minerals of hoth
having crystallized within the mass. The two are closely associated
in areal distribution and together make up the oldest land surfaces
now exposed to view. The great Adirondack highland consists
entirely of their representatives, all antedating the earliest of the
sedimentary rocks that lie upon its border and that- in fact have
been derived from the disintegration and erosion of the crystallines.
The structure and appearance of the different groups are con-
ditioned by the agencies which have operated in their formation.
These features can be best explained, therefore, in the light of the
physical and chemical processes now effective within the earth and
that have been in force probably since primitive geological times.
The general scientific conception of the earth is that of a cooling
body, with the interior in a highly heated state, sufficiently hot to
produce instant fusion on release of the load of overlying rocks.
If the earth was once thoroughly molten, as is postulated by most
geologists, then the cooling process must have led to the formation
of an igneous crust in the first instance. This primitive crust,
through the attack of waters which settled upon it and the decom-
posing effects of the gases of the atmosphere, afforded the source
of the earliest sediments, which were deposited in the depressed
portions occupied by the seas. There are no known representatives
at present of these earliest igneous and sedimentary formations.
The conditions of cooling, however, must produce a continuous
source of strain within the earth in the effort of the outer portion
to adjust itself to the still shrinking interior. The periodic release
of this strain is evidenced in the production of faults and folds
within the crust, affording the relief of pressure necessary for the
liquefaction of the potentially molten rock in the interior and its
migration toward the surface. Igneous activity, consequently, has
not died out, but is still manifest in volcanoes and may be in progress
in the hidden depths through the slow movement of large bodies
that never reach the surface.
It is also believed that crustal adjustments take place in conse-
quence of the shifting of load upon the the superstructure through
the work of rivers. The large rivers bear immense amounts of
detritus to be deposited in the seas hundreds and even thousands of
miles from the sources. The continental interiors are being worn
down and the coastal plains built up in this way. The change of
14 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
load, it is thought, is compensated by a transfer of material in the
substratum in the opposite direction, which causes a sinking of the
overweighted part and a corresponding elevation of the lighter
The adjustments, however occasioned, are accompanied by im-
portant results in regard to rocks. Near the surface these yield to
the strain by fracture, which may take the form of innumerable
division planes or joints that break up the masses into polygonal
blocks. Or again, there may be formed one or more great fractures
along which the rocks have undergone appreciable differential move-
ment with the production of crushed zones. These movements, if
sudden, are accompanied by earthquakes. The large fractures may
extend downwards for indefinite distances, affording ready channels
for the passage of igneous material toward the surface, and thus
are connected with volcanic action. They are frequently found
with a filling of some igneous rock like trap or porphyry, marking
the site of former eruptions.
Within the depths of the earth a point may be reached where the
rocks can not accommodate themselves by fracture und^r the stress
of cubical compression, but adjust themselves by plastic yielding or
flowage. The weight of the overlying load causes them to have a
certain mobility, although actually in a solid state. Under unequal
stress as developed by side thrusts, they tend to move by flowage
toward the direction of least pressure. The depth at which this
method of deformation becomes effective has been estimated by
calculation and experiment at from 6 to 12 miles, the latter being
perhaps the maximum for the very hard resistant rocks. The in-
fluence of this mechanical action is augmented by the heat incident
to the depth at which it takes place and no doubt also by occluded
waters and gasses which facilitate the solution and recrystallization
of the minerals.
The characteristics that are thus produced in rocks by com-
pression within the earth's interior are quite different from those
originally inherent in either igneous or sedimentary types and
belong to the metamorphic class. Members of the latter, like most
igneous rocks, possess a crystalline development, each mineral hav-
ing crystallized acording to its definite habit, but there are differ-
ences in the arrangement of the minerals which is quite typical.
Instead of a uniform distribution that arises from the cooling of
an igneous magma, producing a homogeneous aspect, whatever
plane may be exposed to view, they show a parallel structure and
Photo by G. vail lugeii
Joint Structure in horizontal sediments, Ausable Chasm. The course of
the main vertical joints is followed by the river.
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 1 5
their appearance varies with the direction of the surface with respect
to the structure. This parallehsm is brought about by the Hnear
arrangement of certain constituents hke mica or hornblende which
have tabular or elongated forms ; or it may be produced by the
separation of unlike minerals in layers. There is some analogy
between such structure and that of stratification in the sediments.
But it is no criterion as to the origin of the rock for it is quite
prevalent among those of igneous derivation. This structure is
commonly called foliation or schistosity. It denotes usually
weakened cohesion between the minerals ; and rocks split more
evenly along the foliation than in other diredtions.
The changes accomplished by metamorphism are not limited
ordinarily to a physical rearrangement of the constituents. In
many instances there results also a breaking up of the mineral
compounds and their crystallization in new forms, more stable
under the conditions. The degree to which the chemical alteration
may be carried depends upon the nature of the rock and the agencies
at work upon it. An igneous rock like granite under the same
influences is more resistant to chemical changes than a sediment
like shale. In fact, granite undergoes little alteration beyond the
crushing down of the quartz and feldspar crystals and possibly a
certain amoimt of recrystallization, producing a parallel appearance.
The basic igneous rocks (those with low percentages of silica) in
which the iron, magnesia and lime compounds are well represented,
are more prone to chemical change ; they form readily such rocks
as amphibolite, serpentine and various schists. Among sediments,
the limestones are recrystallized into marbles, but in the presence of
silica and other compounds existing as original impurities or later
introduced, they may be converted into garnetiferous, tremolitic or
micaceous schists or amphibolites. Sandstones are hardened by
secondary growth of the quartz grains or by deposition of silica
cement so as to form quartzites. Shales are converted into slates,
with microscopic mica and feldspar crystals ; or by further meta-
morphism into schists and gneisses. Inasmuch as the agencies of
metamorphism are mainly restricted to the deeper zones within the
earth, the rocks which bear widespread evidence of their effects
must at some time in their history have been buried far below the
surface. It is only through removal of many thousands of feet
• of overlying rock by erosion that they are now exposed to view.
They are found, therefore, among the older geological formations
and include the very earliest members of which we have knowledge.
■l6 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
The physical features associated with the field occurrence of rocks
may be considered under the head of structures. Such features
include joints, faults and folds, to name some of the more important,
Joints. One of the most evident characters, common to all rocks
whatever their origin, is due to the divisional planes that intersect
the foodies so that they are never continuous solids, but are broken
up into small blocks. These divisional planes or joints may be but
a few inches apart, or they may occur at intervals of 50 or loc
feet. In fact, there is every variation almost in their frequency and
in their direction with respect to each other. Very commonly there
are three sets of joints which intersect at high angles, producing
nearly rectangular prisms ; this form is quite characteristic of the
sedimentary and of the coarser-grained igneous rocks ; but no
absolute rule can be laid down for their occurrence. Their attitude
wlith re'spect tO' the surface contours and their spacing are importamt
points to be considered in the location of quarry sites, especially
if the stone is to be used in dimension or monumental work.
Joints are in part primary characteristics, that is, they have been
produced in the natural course of consolidation of rocks, and in
part arise from stresses extem'ally applied after the rocks were
consolidated. The former kind is illustrated by the prismatic or
columnar jointing found in exposures of fine-grained igneous rocks
such as have cooled in narrow channels or near the surface. Fine
examples are to be seen in the Palisades diabase. Such jointing is
the result of strains set up in the process of cooling and proceeds
always at right angles to the exposed surface.
In the sedimentary rocks, the bedding is a plane of weakened
cohesion among the mineral particles arid thus marks a direction
of potential jointing which probably may result in actual separation
on exposure of the beds to drying. The , sedimentary rocks also
exhibit joints that intersect the bedding at right angles, and in some
oaises they may be referred to the same cause, contraction on evap-
oration of the contained water.
It is generally considerecj, however, that joints are mostly; second-
ary fractures resulting from externally applied stresses. Com-
pression arising from crustal readjustments, or torsional and vibra-
tory strains incident thereto, is given the greatest importance in
recent contributions to the subject of jointing. The application of a
single stress may be resolved into two components at right angles to
each other and forming an angle of 45° with the direction of the
Plioto by J. N. Nevins
Joint structure, Little Falls syenite. Vertical and horizontal joints in an
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK i I7
Stress. Thus two joint systems arise from a single force and even
more complex fractures may result, as has been demonstrated by
In most rock exposures there are at least two systems of vertical
or highly inclined planes' nearly at right angles, and one that lies
approximately horizontal, or. in the sedimentary and metamorphic
rocks, follows the bedding or schistosity.
The joints in one direction may be more clearly marked and per-
sistent than in other directions. They can be divided into principal
joints and minor joints. The latter often originate and die out in
a short distance, but the major joints are likely to continue over
wide areas. Within the crystallines of the Adirondacks, the most
persistent joints have a northerly to northeasterly trend with a
complementary set at right angles.
A series of closely spaced vertical joints is known to quarrymen
as a heading. The zone of broken rock is used as a back or heading
to work against. In such close jointing, there is often evidence of
more or less faulting in the smoothed and striated- surfaces and
the formation of secondary minerals. A weathered appearance is
also characteristic of such zones, as they serve as channels for the
admission of surface, waters.
The igneous rocks, especially those like granite that occur in
bosses and knobs, show at times a series of close-set fractures,
horizontal or slightly curved in conformity with the surface, that
divide the mass into parallel plates. This is known as sheet struc-
ture and is common in many of the New England and southern
granites, but appears to be rare in the Adirondacks, at least in its
more typical form, although some quarries show incipient or im-
perfectly developed sheets. The origin of this structure has re-
ceived much attention from geologists, with the proposal of various
explanations. Since the fractures follow the surface oonitouris in
most cases and gradually diminish in their frequency and strength
with depth, there seems to be good reason for connecting them with
some superficial process like the strains set up by temperature varia-
tions. The subject is well discussed in Dale's reports on the quar-
ries of the New England States.^
Faults, The phenomena incident to displacements of the rocks
along fractures are quite common in the crystalline areas, and also
1 Proceed. Washington Acad. Sci., v. 7, July 1905, p. 267-75.
2 For example, " The Chief Commercial Granites of Massachusetts, New
Hampshire and Rhode Island." U. S. Geo!. Sur. Bui. 354, 1908, p. 22-29.
NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
in the older stratified formations. They result from strains in the
outer zone of fracture and thus are connected with the formation
of secondary joints. As already noted, a system of very marked
jointing is often accompanied by differential motion of the rocks
involved, which is denoted by their polished surfaces. When the
displacement is considerable, the rocks along the fracture are much
broken and sometimes mashed into a mineral pulp in which much
alteration has taken place.
Fig. I Simple faults.
b the reversed fault
illustrates the common or normal fault, and
Faulting is most common and of the greatest magnitude in the
Adirondack area of which the whole eastern and southeastern
boundaries between the upraised and folded crystallines and the
horizontal Paleozoic sediments are defined by a series of faults. Like
the massive joint systems of that section, they have a northeasterly
to northerly trend ; their downthrow is toward the east. Some of
the: interior Adirondack valleys are undoubtedly the result of fault-
ing, either of single or compound type, but in this case, the evidences
of actual displacement are not so apparent since it is confined to
the crystallines alone. Valleys with abrupt slopes on both sides may
be due to the sinking of the block between two faults, as is thought
to be the origin of the Lake George basin. There is need of caution,
however, in ascribing the existence of scarps and deep valleys in
this region to faulting, as the normal course of weathering and
particularly the wear of glacial ice would tend to produce sharp
contours along the main joint systems.
Fig. 2 Normal faulting in inclined strata; the same beds outcrop repeat-
edly when traced across the strike
OtTARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK Ic)
For present purposes, it is not necessary to enter upon a dis-
cussion of the various types of faults and their effects upon rock
structure. They are generally to be avoided in the laying out of
quarries. If the aim is to produce crushed stone, their presence
may not be objectionable, but even helpful; though care must be
used lest the rock be decomposed or so shattered by the faulting
as to lose its qualities of hardness and toughness. In mining
engineering they are of great importance, and they should be given
due consideration also in the plans for permanent foundations and
structures, as they mark the lines along which future crustal dis-
turbances may occur.
Folds. The original arrangement of the sedimentary rocks, as
determined by their deposition layer by layer upon the flat or
slightly sloping sea bottom, is that of a series of parallel and nearly
horizontal sheets. Upraisal into land may take place so gradually
and uniformly as to preserve this attitude almost unchanged. Thus
the great belts of limestones, shales and sandstones which occupy
practically all the State south of the Mohawk and west of the
Hudson, show almost no relative disturbance throughout their
extent, although they have been elevated through a range of 2000
feet or more. When some of the formations are traced eastward
from the Hudson toward the New England border, they rapidly
lose the appearance of horizontality and assume inclined positions
so as to present their upturned eroded edges to the surface. The
new arrangement reflects the influence of lateral compression in
bending and folding the strata so as to bring them into smaller
The development of folds or flexures can be traced in the rocks
through all stages from simple to very intricate forms. Every case
of folding, however, may be reduced to a variation of two simple
basic types, that of the uparched or saddle fold and the inverted
type or downfold. The former, called an anticline, is recognized
in the field, where the arch itself is concealed or eroded away, by
the inclinations o.f the same beds in opposite directions from the
central line or axis. The second type, called the syncline, has
inward sloping sides which meet to form a trough.^
Simple open folds may have symmetrical limbs which are inclined
at the same angles. This is rather exceptional and the sides more
1 The attitude of folds in the field is found by taking observations of
the inclinations and direction of the beds referred to the horizontal plane.
The angle of greatest inclination to that plane is the dip; and the direction
of outcrop with reference to the true north is the strike.
NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
often show different inclinations. The close, compressed folds have
straight sides which dip in nearly the same direction. The arches
in such cases are often overturned so that one side rests upon the
Fig. 3 Folded strata, showing a syncline bounded by two anticlines or
other. Examples of the open types of folding are found in the
strata that lie on the borders of our mountain areas and are oc-
casionally seen in the limestones and sandstones of the Mohawk
and central Hudson valleys. In the interior of the mountains, the
folds become compressed or overturned and develop minor flexures,
superimposed on the larger ones so as to produce a very complicated
Folding of the intense kind is accompanied by metamorphism.
The metamorphic rocks like marble, slate and schist are invariably
highly folded. So intricate is the result of this folding upon the
crystalline rocks of the Adirondacks, followed as it has been by
profound erosion, that the nature of the flexures are only rarely
determinable, though the high angles of dip and their conformity
for considerable distances indicate strongly compressed strata.
The crystalline limestones and marbles, owing to their uniforrii-
ity and the readiness with which they yield to stress by plastic
movement, often effectually conceal the existence of folds. When
seams of slightly different character or stringers of foreign materials
are present, these will generally be found to be bent into a succession
of winds and inverted folds that exemplify in limited compass the
actual contortion that has taken place on a large scale.
Fig. 4 Folding of the Paleozoic strata in the vicinity of Kingston, N. Y.
After N. H. Darton
Great masses of igneous rock, like the areas of granite, syenite,
and anorthosite in the Adirondacks, undergo much less shortening
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 21
from compression when once they have consolidated. The very
early gneisses of probably igneous derivation have a lenticular or
belt-like form with the large axis parallel to the general structural
trend and have thus been influenced to some extent, though they
were perhaps squeezed out somewhat while still molten. In general,
the ligneous masses serve as a buttress, against which the thrusts that
fold the sedimentaries have little effect.
Many rocks as found in the field show a capacity for splitting
along one or more planes. This feature, when well developed, is
of great advanltage tO' the quarryman and stone dresser and upon
its existence depends in great measure the availability of stone
for many commercial uses. There is naturally marked variation in
the behavior of rocks in regard to parting, not only between the
different classes — igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic — but
also among members of the same class, so that each occurrence must
be separately tested for this structure.
In the sedimentary class, the direction of easiest parting coin-
cides usually with the bedding. In the finer mechanical sediments
like bluestone and shale that have been sorted and deposited by
water, the structure is often exhibited in great perfection. In this
case, it may be traced to the presence of platy and elongated par-
ticles among the constituents, or else to a regular alternation of
finer and coarser materials parallel with the bedding planes. The
chemical precipitates, which are mainly represented by limestones,
show it much less frequently, being often incapable of smooth frac-
ture, although subdivided by natural seams or joints. For that
reason limestones are often stronger and more resistant to wear
than the other sediments, and are specially adapted for crushed stone
in road-making and concrete.
The best example of this parting among sedimentary rocks is
found perhaps in the flagstones which are mostly made of fine-
grained sandstones that in New York are abundant in the Devonic
formations. They are locally known as bluestone, though, that
term is not always expressive of their appearance. Between the
bedding planes of the sandstones occur closed seams which are in-
dicated by a slight change of grain and are spoken of by the
quarrymen as " reeds." According to Dickinson,^ reeding quarries
are found generally in the fine-grained stone and each locality or
^ Quarries of Bluestone and Other Sandstones. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 6i,
p. y-8, 1903.
22 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
quarry has its own characteristic reeds. Berkey^ states from
observation of the bluestone in the Catskills that the capacity for
sphtting into slabs depends upon the abundance, arrangement and
size of the elongated and fibrous grains. The reeds are marked by
a darker color and finer grain than the body of the rock. The
structure is partly original and partly arises from changes subse-
quent to the formation of the bluestone, whereby the fibrous ap-
pearance has been accentuated.
The massive igneous rocks, of course, are devoid of any capacity
for cleavage comparable to that in bedded types. But none the
less, they oftentimes possess a differential parting which greatly
facilitates their manipulation in the quarry. Quite commonly the
parting takes place in two directions at right angles to each other.
The line along which the stone yields most readily is known as
the rift; it may lie in any plane, but is more often, perhaps, nearly
vertical. The direction of the second easiest cleavage is called
the " grain " or sometimes the " run." Though many quarry stones
seem to possess only the two lines of smooth fracture, there is
occasionally a third, along which they may be broken 'with some
degree of ease and which is known as the " head." This is less
easily detected than the others, because it approaches the normal
fracture of the stone.
Rift and grain are frequently described in works on the quarry
industries with special reference to the granites. From the in-
formation given, the impression might be gained that these struc-
tures are only characteristic of the granites, though such con-
clusion is by no means warranted. The syenitic rocks of the
Adirondacks often show a fairly good cleavage in two directions.
Other examples of rift which may be compared with the same
structure in granites are to be found' in the crushed but
massive-appearing anorthosites, such as those quarried in the north-
ern Adirondacks, near Ausable Forks and Keeseville. This rock
is almost entirely made up of lime-feldspar (labradorite) though
some phases contain quite a little pyroxene and garnet. It splits
readily in two directions so as to be easily dressed into dimension
stone or paving blocks. The igneous rocks of the gabbro class, in
which large percentages of pyroxene or amphibole are present,
seem to lack the structure in anything like the typical development
of the more acid rocks.
1 Quality of the Bluestone in the Vicinity of Ashokan Dam. School of
Mines Quarterly, v. 29, no. 2, p. 156-57.
OUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK
The cause of rift in the igneous rocks has been variously ex-
plained. Some writers have attributed it to a slight foliation pro-
duced by parallel arrangement of the mica minerals. In such
cases, it is comparable to the foliation cleavage of the metamorphic
Fig. 5 Microscopic fractures in anorthosite, parallel to the rift or direction
of easiest cleavage. The section is nearly pure feldspar, the small grains
being garnet. Enlarged 25 times
rocks. Another cause may be found in the regular arrangement
of the feldspars so as to bring their cleavages into alignment, as
has been described for a Norwegian syenite. Perhaps the more
common type of rift, specially in the granites, is that produced
by the presence of microscopic fracture lines. Tarr, Whittle and
others have noted many examples in which the cleavage arises
from very minute hairlike fractures, individually somewhat irregu-
lar and discontinuous, but in general holding their direction un-
changed throughout the rock mass. Such fractures are found in
both quartz and feldspar. Dale ^ more recently has shown that
rift may be related t'o minute cavities in the cjuartz, the cavities
being arranged in parallel sheets which, in some instances, are
accompanied by parallel fractures.
Among the metamorphic rocks, a foliated or gneissoid structure
is usually accompanied by cleavage along the planes of foliation.
1 U. S. Geol. Survey Bui. 354, p. 42-47, 1908.
24 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
The appearance of foliation is due to the parallel arrangement of
the prismatic and scaly minerals or to the elongation of the quartz
and feldspar, accompanied by more or less segregation of the con-
stituents in alternating bands. Some rocks evidence the effects
of metamorphism by granulation and recrystallization, without the
development of any marked foliation. This is true of the light-
Colored feldspar-quartz gneisses and of the purer feldspar anortho-
sites that are common in the Adirondacks. These rocks, when
crushed, present a massive appearance and have a smooth fracture
in two or more directions, instead of a single cleavage, like the
typical gneisses. .
CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ROCKS WHICH
INFLUENCE THEIR COMMERCIAL USES
Chemical composition. The determination of chemical com-
position may afford much information as to the availatjility of rocks
for different purposes. Its service in many cases, however, may
be said to be rather of negative value, as determining the presence
or absence of certain harmful constituents and as a test for the
relative decomposition which a rock has undergone under surface
weathering. The analysis is of most value when used in connection
with the results of microscopic study.
Limestones are employed in large quantities by chemical and
metallurgical establishments, and here an analysis is the first con-
sideration. For some uses a magnesian limestone may be preferred ;
for others a high calcium variety is wanted; but nearly always the
demand requires a limestone with low percentage of impurities
in the form of silica, alumina and iron. For Portland cement
manufacture the presence of the first two ingredients is rather an
advantage, as they take the place of so much clay or shale. For
building or engineering work, the analysis plays little part in
deciding upon a suitable stone.
With sandstones the chemical analysis is useful mainly as a guide
to the character of the cementing substance, since the sand grains
themselves are chiefly quartz. Feldspathic sandstones, which are
indicated by the presence of alumina, lime and alkalies, are less
durable than the pure quartz kinds, but ordinarily good enough for
most construction work. In the case of the igneous rocks, chemical
composition has some practical significance, though its place can
be supplied often by a careful study of the constituent minerals
as usually carried out with thin sections under the microscope.
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 25
The percentage of silica determines whether the rock is to be classed
with the acid (over 65 per cent SiOo), intermediate (55-65 per
cent), OT basic (below 55 per cent) groups. In the first group free
quartz, which is the most resistant of all minerals to alteration and
one of the strongest, is present in quantity. All granites belong
to that group. The intermediate group consists mainly of syenites
and diorites in which potash and lime-soda feldspars are the main
ingredients. These show a higher resistance to physical disintegra-
tion than granite, but they are perhaps a little more open to chemical
alteration. In this group may be classed also the anorthosites wM'ch
are made up of lime feldspar and subordinate pyroxene and which
are usually classed wnth the gabbros in the basic division For
all practical purposes they can be considered as equivalent to the
syenites. The basic group is represented by the gabbros, pyrox-
enites, hornblendites and diabases among the more common rocks.
They have high percentages of the basic or lime feldspar and of
the iron-magnesian minerals, especially pyroxene and hornblende
and frequently olivine. They are exceedingly tough, unyielding
rocks when fresh and eminently suited for crushed stone, but are
too somber in color for most construction purposes. They weather
rather rapidly through chemical decomposition with the produ<Aion
of hydrated silicates and oxides, such as 'serpentine, talc and
The metamorphic rocks are chemically allied to the igneous or
sedimentary types from which they have been derived.
The presence of sulphides in any building or ornamental stone
is undesirable. They are indicated chemically by the percentage
of sulphur dioxide in the analysis. Pyrite and marcasite, the
common sulphides in rocks, break down readily in the atmosphere
to iron oxides which cause unsightly stains upon the surface, though
not ordinarily weakening the structure of the rock itself.
The percentages of carbon dioxide and water in igneous rocks
afford valuable criteria as to their relative freshness. Carbon
dioxide indicates the presence of calcite which results from the
decomposition of feldspar and some of the other silicate minerals.
Water in amount above a small percentage is also traceable to
secondary products like kaolin, talc and serpentine.
Mineral composition. According to their relative importance,
the rock-forming minerals may be divided into (o) essential
ingredients and (b) nonessential or accessory ingredients. The
former constitutes the bulk of rock masses, commonly all but a
2,6 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
few per cents of the whole ; and includes all those that have any
considerable influence upon the physical properties and fitness of
the materials for economic uses. There are a few exceptions to be
made with reference especially to the iron oxides and iron sulphides
which occur in small amounts, but yet are important, the former
as coloring agents and the latter owing to their tendency to de-
compose in the atmosphere and cause unsightly stains.
The various representatives of the igneous rocks are combina-
tions of a small number of essential minerals. A list of the more
important minerals includes cjuartz, feldspar, mica, amphibole, py-
roxene and olivine. If to these be added nephelite, soda'lite. and
leucite, w'hich occur in certain areally restricted but not altogether
rare types, the list of essential ingredients for the igneous class
It may be noted that all the minerals named contain silica. Quartz
is silica alone, while the others are compounds known as silicates
in which silica functions as an acid and combines with some of the
basic elements like sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron
and aluminum, to name the more common ones. Several of the
minerals, namely, feldspar, mica, pyroxene and amphibole, are not
single species, but mineral groups with a number of individual
species possessing similar but not identical chemical and mineralog-
-The strength and durability of the igneous rocks in ordinary
service a.re conditioned by the nature of the constituent minerals
and the manner in which they occur. The harder and more durable
ingredients are c[uartz and' feldspar, consequently the rDcks that
are made up of them in larger part are the most serviceable under
•equal conditions. Quartz is not subject to chemical decomposition,
but feldspar yields slightly to atmospheric agencies a:nd in the
course of time may become softened so as to crumble under pres-
siire. The iron-bearing' silicates which are represented by mica,
aniphibole, pyroxene aiid olivine are also subject to change under
the weather, with the result that the iron is partly discharged from
combination aS' limonite, and new combinations of silica character-
ized' by the presence of water in considerable amount are formed.
Chlorite, serpentine and talc are common secondary minerals result-
,iog:from their alteration. It may be noted that while such changes
have taken place in nature on a great scale, the element of time
has been a factor for which no equivalent can be found within
! the. limits of human experience. As a matter of fact, almost any
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 2J
mineral com'bination among the igneous rocks, provided the in-
gredients are not already in weathered condition, is durable enough
to serve the purpose of ordinary building construction. There is
little choice, so far as mineral composition is concerned, to be made
between a granite, a syenite or a gabbro. From the standpoiinits of
toughness and resistance to abrasion, which are important qualities
for concrete and road materials, the syenites and the more basic
rocks are likely to prove superior to the granite.
The sedimentary rocks may be classified by their mineral content
into (a) arenaceous materials represented by sandstones and con-
glomerates, (&) argi'llaceous materials or clays and shales, and (c)
calcareous materials or limestones. They have a simpler mineral
composiiti'on than the igneous types. Sandstones are composed of
granular quartz held together by some cementing substance. This
may be a secondary deposit of quartz, in which case the rock is called
quartzite ; or one of the iron minerals, like limonite or hematite.
The argillaceous members consist of very finely divided clayey sub-
stances with more or less quartz, calcite, iron ores, etc. They are
too soft for constructional stone, but under metamorphism yield
slates, schists and gneisses. The limestones consist of the mineral
calcite alone, or calcite admixed with dolomite, in the latter case
being called magnesian or dolomitic limestones.
Between the groups of limestones and sandstones as a whole,
there is no comparison possible with regard to durable qualities.
If the nature of the respective components (calcite and quartz)
alone were to be considered, sandstone would be far superior, but
there are other factors entering into the question. The size of
the constituent particles, the porosity, and the character of the
cementing substance, if any, need to be taken into account.
With sandstones, the character of the cementing substance is
more important than any other feature. Some contain very little
cement, being held together by the surface adhesion of the particles
when brought into close contact. These are apt to be friable and
little resistant to physical disintegration. Calcite is a common
cement, but rather inferior, since it seems to lose its attachment
to the quartz with weathering, and the rock becomes a sugary
aggregate. Iron oxide in the form of hematite forms a durable
binder and provides an attractive color.
The highest grade sandstones in respect to hardness, toughness
and permanency are those in which the grains are bound together
by quartz. Such types are called quartzites and are exemplified by
28 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
many occurrences of the Potsdam sandstone in this State. When
the secondary quartz is united with the grains to build them out
into interlocking crystals, as sometimes happens, the material is
the most durable of all constructional stones.
Limestones are made up mainly of the calcareous skeletons of
organisms, though often so finely comminuted as to be unrecogniz-
aible to the unaided eye. There is also more or less of secondary
calcite, derived by solution and redeposition of the lime, which
serves to fill up the interstices and the interiors of the organic
remains. The calcite shows crystalline character, but is not so
uniformly developed in rhombic particles as in the case of marbles.
Besides calcite, the double carbonate of lime and magnesia, or
dolomite, may be present in similar form. Through its increasing
participation, the magnesia may replace the lime up to 20 per cent
Though calcite is quite soluble in rain water and groundwaters
which contain carbon dioxide, limestones, when compact and well
cemented, are sufficiently durable in the mass to withstand all
ordinary conditions of exposure. The purer varieties are the best.
The presence of argillaceous and siliceous impurities tends to
weaken their structure, as there is not the same bond between
particles of different nature as exists between the uniform calcare-
The metamorphic rocks require no special mention. In their
mineralogy, they are related to the one or the other of these classes.
Metamorphism ordinarily produces small changes in the igneous
rocks so far as their mineral ingredients are concerned. With
the sediments it tends toward recrystallization of the ingredients,
thus making them more compact or harder than the originals, with
an approach, in the case of the siliceous sediments, to the struc-
tures and mineral contents of the igneous class.
Texture. There is no doubt that texture (by which is meant
the size, form and spacing of the mineral particles) plays an im-
portant role in the strength and durability of rocks. The relation-
ship, however, is not always so distinct or easily grasped as might
be inferred from the treatment given in some works on quarry
materials. As a rule, each quarry presents features that require
individual study, not alone by themselves, but with reference to
the geological history and mineral content of the material.
The size of grain obviously affects the appearance and physical
qualities of rocks. It is not (contrary to the opinions frequently
expressed) an index of their porosity or resistance to weathering
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 29
influences. Tests show that a fine-grained granite may be as porous
as a coarse-grained one, which is also true of a sandstone. There
is usually a difference in the size of the' pores, which are larger
but less numerous in the coarser stones ; consec[uently, it may be
said that these will usually absorb moisture more readily and on
the other hand dry out more quickly than similar rocks composed
of particles in a fine state of division. Whether they weather more
or less rapidly than their fine-grained equivalents, depends upon
other factors such as the state of aggregation and relative spacing of
the particles and the character of the climate.
Experiments with the St Lawrence and Jefferson county granites
indicate that the coarser grades, which contain feldspars up to an
inch in diameter, are as closely textured as the fine sorts. There
is also no appreciable difference in the two kinds with regard to
weathering, so far as can be estimated from the condition of the
rocks in natural exposures.
Crystalline rocks which have consolidated at depths show little
porosity, and the variations between different examples are often
too slight to have significance for practical purposes. Any marked
departure from the average is traceable to external influences in
the way of chemical or mechanical disintegration and should be an
occasion for careful investigation.
The fragmental rocks like sandstone and grits are apt to have
more pore space. But a degree of porosity above the average is
indicative of imperfect cementation. It denotes, therefore, pervi-
ousness to moisture, as well as inferior strength through lack of
bond. Limestones and marbles may be quite as impervious as the
igneous rocks. Porosity in their case may arise from solution by
the seepage of underground waters, forming cavities which weaken
their structure and not infrequently contain secondary deposits
of iron sulphides.
Apart from these considerations, the size of grain seems to bear
some relation to the strength of certain rocks. This has been
noted by Julien/ who instances the minutely crystalline limestones
as examples which may show surprising resistance to crushing ; in
a limestone from Lake Champlain the ultimate strength reached
25,000 pounds to the square inch. The explanation for the superior
strength of such rocks, as given by that writer, is that the molecular
cohesion between the grains, under equal conditions, is proportion-
1 Building Stones — Elements of Strength in their Constitution and Struc-
ture. Journal of the Franklin Institute, v. 147. April 1899.
30 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
ate to their fineness. The apparent exceptions to this relation of
grain to strength are numerous, but they are possibly accounted for
by variations of interlockment and cementation between the par-
An important element in the strength of some rocks is con-
tributed by the interlockment of the particles, an arrangement
which acts upon the general structure like hair in a mortar. This
is exemplified best of all by the diabases in which the feldspar in
lathlike crystals is embedded in a matrix of pyroxene, olivine and
magnetite, so as to exert the utmost resistance to both tension and
compression. A similar effect may be produced by prismatic horn-
blende and pyroxene crystals in the syenites and gabbros or by
the mica scales in granites. A dovetailing of the mineral particles
contributes to the strength of some marbles and granites. The
grains have irregular or indented outlines instead of smooth,
rounded borders and are molded upon each other in the closest
form of interlockment.
A uniformity of texture with the minerals spaced after a regular
pattern is an advantage both from the standpoints of appearance
and of weathering qualities. It is essential for rocks that are to
be subjected to abrasion and wear.
Color. Little significance attaches to color as a guide to the
intrinsic merits of building stone. Within narrow limits it may
indicate something in regard to the relative state of weathering but
a change of color such as may be brought about by oxidation of
iron or 'bleaching of carbon compounds on exposure to the air does
not necessarily mean a deterioration in strength. From commercial
considerations, however, color ranks among the very important
qualities and has much to do with the favor which a stone wins in
the market. This is especially true of architectural stone for use
in our larger cities. There is a certain prevailing taste apparent
in the selection of stone with reference to color which finds illustra-
tion in city architecture of different periods. At present, the
taste seems to incline toward the very lightest colors, white or
light gray, often to the exclusion of shades which are much better
adapted for service in the surroundings. The employment of white
marbles and very light granites for structures in manufacturing
districts or for railroad stations seems inappropriate as it is un-
The colors found in rocks are too varied to be individually dis-
cussed or explained. It may be said that the principal coloring
agents are iron and carbon, the former for the igneous class and
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK ^t
the two together in sedimentary rocks. Iron occurs in chemical
combination chiefly in the sihcate minerals like biotite, hornblende,
augite and olivine, lending various shades of green or a black color
to these ingredients of the crystalline rocks. It also occurs in the
form of free oxides, sulphides and carbonate distributed through
the body of the rock. The yellow, brown and reddish tints are
mainly due to the oxides of iron, blue and gray to the carbonate.
Carbon occurs in finely divided particles which lend a black or
bluish color to certain limestones, marbles and slates.
The presence of iron in a condition of incomplete oxidation, as
ferrous oxide or carbonate, or as a sulphide, is detrimental to build-
ing or ornamental stones. The original colors incident to their
presence will not prove permanent. In some classes of material,
the change which takes place by oxidation of these compounds
produces a desirable mellowing effect, as in the Hudson River
sandstones, but ordinarily it leads to red or yellow blotches. The
colors resulting from the oxidation of pyrite and marcasite are
also apt to run, forming streaks which extend outward from the
particles and are quite frequently seen in exposed walls. Some
measure of the permanancy of color in building materials may be
had by a chemical analysis giving the percentages of unoxidized
iron. Allowance should be made for the nature of the compound,
for the mineral magnetite which contains both ferrous and ferrtic
iron is more stable under atmospheric weathering than a ferrous
compound like the carbonate. In fact magnetite is extremely re-
sistant to change and its occurrence can not be held as a draw-
back to the use of any stone.
Besides the change of color that takes place in building stones
through the relatively slow alteration of the components as noted,
there are well-known instances where changes occur almost im-
mediately on removal of the stone from the quarry. The nature of
this change is not fully understood, but it seems to be connected
in some cases with the loss of the quarry moisture or sap. As a
local example may be cited some of the occurrences of the Adiron-
dack green syenite which have a lively light to dark green color
on fresh surfaces but which change within a few days to a yellow
or muddy green. The change is unaccompanied by any discernible
effect with respect to the mineral ingredients, and, though it seems
to be connected with the loss of moisture, the original tint can not
be restored by long-continued immersion in water.
The appearance of stone in a building can not be summed up
entirely under color. Some kinds have a bright, clean look which
32 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
others of similar color lack. There is a strong contrast in that
respect between Gouverneur marble, for example, and a noncrystal-
line granular limestone. The nature of the surface exposed to view
also must be taken into account; in the darker stones, a marked
difference usually exists between the rock face and the hammered
surfaces, the latter being much lighter. The appearance of a stone
in a small sample may fail to give the actual effect when seen at
some distance in the walls of a building.
The granites and related silicate rocks ordinarily change very
little, even on long exposure to the weather. Their coloration is
lent by the inherent colors of the various minerals, rather than by
the presence of some accidental ingredient diffused through the
jnass. In consequence of their usually complex mineral composition,
they appear mottled or speckled on close view and only assume uni-
form tints when viewed from a distance. The coarser the texture,
the greater is the distance required to produce blending. Among the
ingredients of igneous rocks, quartz exercises little part in the
coloration, itself being colorless or at most grayish or whitish.
Feldspar is the minenal ;to which the granites, syenites' and amoritho-
sites owe their characteristic colors. In the granites, it is mainly
white, cream or light pink, but is sometimes deep red. Its effect
is toned down by the darker minerals, so that the brilliant white or
red becomes gray or dark red in the body of the rock. The feldspar
in syenite may be pink or gray, but is not infrequently blue or
green. The feldspar (labradorite) of anorthosite has a dark green
to almost black color in fresh condition, but shows nearly white
when crushed and subjected to slight alteration. In the diorites,
gahbros and diabases, the dark silicates, like biotite, amphibole and
pyroxene, share importance with the feldspar and consequently
these rocks possess rather somber tones. '
Strength, The resistance which rocks offer to stress when ap-
plied to their surface varies much with the class and type. It
depends upon many different factors which are mainly related to
the mineral composition and texture, but which are also influenced
by external conditions. Some of the relations between the physical
characters of rocks, particularly textures, and strength have already
The igneous rocks as a class are distinguished from the other
rocks by the fact that their strength is uniform, irrespective of the
direction in which the stress may be applied. This depends, of
course, uipon their homogeneous composition and texture. In the
sedimentary and metamorphic classes, the planes of bedding or
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 33
schistosity mark a weakened cohesion between the constituents
which may lead to a very considerable variation in their strength,
according as the latter is tested parallel with or normal to those
planes. Variations of strength do occur in the igneous rocks,
notably such as possess rift and grain structures, but to a minor
degree as compared with the other classes.
Mineral composition affects the strength of rocks, though in
general it is less important than the features connected with texture.
Such a weak material as serpentine shows surprising compressive
and tensile strengths when the (fibers of which it is composed are
thoroughly interwoven. Marbles and limestones of nearly uniform
composition exhibit a wide variation in tests with variations of
grain and compactness of texture. On the other hand, the presence
of hard' resistant minerals like quartz, hornblende and pyroxene no
doubt contribute to the strength of certain igneous rocks.
The resistance of the stone to stress n"cessarily differs with the
method of application, and the behavior of a sample under com-
pression, which is the usual method of testing strength, does not
afford any valuable information as to the resistance the stone will
offer to tensile or bending stresses. This fact is very well brought
out by the cracking of arches and lintels under transverse strains,
whereas the same forces applied in compression have little or no
The strength of stone is often injured by lack of proper care in
quarrying. Stone that has been blasted from the ledge by dynamite
or powder can not be expected to exhibit the same strength as that
quarried with the use of the drill and wedges. Even if there are
no visible cracks or checks, it will be found that the blasting has
worked damage to the texture by loosening the bond between the
Other conditions which affect strength are the weathering and
drying out of the stone after removal from the quarry. Some
soft sandstones show a remarkable gain in strength when exposed
to the sun's heat and the consequent evaporation of the quarry sap.
When saturated again, they lose some of this acquired strength,
but are still more resistant than the freshly quarried rock ; exposure
to a wide range of temperature is, however, detrimental to any
THE EXAMINATION AND TESTING OF STONE
The availability of any stone for commercial use depends first
of all upon the features connected with its field occurrence. Geo-
logical observations are necessary to determine the quantity of
34 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
material that can be readily quarried ; the physical conditions affect-
ing the course and economy of quarry work ; and the general char-
acter of the stone with regard to color, texture and the larger
structural variations incident to inclusions, segregations, dikes and
veins. Even liberal samples collected with a great deal of care fail
to convey the same information respecting the general features
of the stone that is gained by an inspection of the exposure or
quarry pit itself.
The next consideration is to establish the physical properties
of the stone so as to be able to forecast with some certainty its
relative fitness for the special service that may be demanded of it.
This information is afforded by mineralogical and chemical investi-
gations supplemented by physical tests along the line of those
adopted for estimating the strength and durability of other struc-
tural materials. Furthermore, a comparative study of the behavior
of different quarry stones under conditions of actual service will
be helpful in applying the results obtained by laboratory experi-
mentation. In fact, physical tests alone may lead to erroneous
conclusions as to the relative value of samples, and the guidance
.obtainable by observations of materials of similar nature in actual
service is highly essential in forming an estimasbe.
The field relations of quarry stones may be said to comprehend
practically the whole range of variations of rock occurrence. Their
interpretation requires a broad knowledge of the origin and struc-
ture of rocks and the modifications produced by surface agencies
which can hardly be presented here. Such knowledge is in part to
be found in any standard work on geology and in part rests upon
personal experience gained by study in the field. Only a few gen-
eral matters will be given attention here.
The granites and related igneous rocks ordinarily occur in large
bodies and are continuous for indefinite distances into the earth.
The question of quantity of material is not so important, therefore,
as the situation with respect to ease of quarrying. The most ad-
vantageous situation for cjuarry work is along the side of a hill,
as it facilitates the handling of the stone and secures natural drain-
age. The direction and frequency of joints exert much influence
upon the relative ease of obtaining blocks and also determine
whether stone of size for building and monumental work can be
had. A rift and grain structure is necessary if the stone is to be
used for dimension work or paving blocks.
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 35
Variations in the character of the igneous rocks are produced
by pegmatitic and aphtic segregations and dikes, by quartz veins,
and by inchisions of foreign materials that have been involved in
the mass during its progress toward the surface. These are detri-
mental to uniformity of the product, or may necessitate the dis-
carding of much material in the quarry work. They are not so
important in case the stone is to be used for engineering work in
which appearance is a minor consideration.
With the sedimentary rocks, the dip or inclination of the beds
is a matter of importance.. With ordinary quarry materials exploita-
tion under cover is impracticable on account of the cost, though
it may be adopted in the case of marble or slate. The thickness
and succession of the beds, the presence of shale partings, varia-
tions of texture and color, and the spacing of the joints are features
to be noted. When the beds lie nearly flat and their edges are not
exposed in nearby stream valleys, it may be necessary to prospect
the beds by test holes. For that purpose, a diamond or shot drill
is used and the cost of securing cores by such method may be
expected to amount to several dollars a foot ; ordinarily, only shal-
low holes are necessary, but the expense is proportionately large
on account of frequency of moving and setting up the drill.
The sedimentary rocks, unless broken and faulted by dynamic
agencies, may be expected to extend over wide areas. It is not
safe, however, to rely on the continuity of individual layers for
any considerable distance without evidence in the matter. In the
clastic rocks like sandstones, especially, the character of the beds
may change quite rapidly, or the layers may wedge out to be suc-
ceeded by others of different color or texture. This feature is well
illustrated by the Medina sandstones which are subject to rapid
variations along the strike, the heavy and valuable beds becoming
thin or shaly within short distances, though on the dip they are
apparently more persistent. The use of the core drill will often
effect a large saving in the development work of quarry properties.
The value of observations in the field as to the durability or
weathering qualities of stone is not of much consequence. At most,
they can be used only to compare the relative resistance of different
materials when exposed to similar conditions. That the conditions
depend much upon the topography and the character of the soil
covering appears very evident and the variations in these respects
may overbalance the factors inherent in the stones themselves.
Thus the evidences of weathering are more apparent in valley
bottoms where the process of decomposition and disintegration is
30 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
cumulative in its effects than upon a hill where the products are
removed nearly as rapidly as they are formed. In a glaciated
country like this State, the presence or absence of bowlder clay is
an important feature in determining the effects of weathering.
When that material rests directly upon rock, the latter is always
much fresher in appearance than when covered with sand or soil.
It is now quite generally conceded that no reliable estimate can
be made from the weathering qualities of rock in place as to its
probable permanency when placed in the walls of a building. That
conclusion was reached in the course of an investigation carried out
a few years ago by a commission appointed by the Prussian govern-
ment. The report of the commission, as quoted from Parks'
Building and Ornamental Stone of Canada,^ stated that:
1 The alterations produced in stone by the agents acting in
the crust of the earth are not comparable with those caused by
the action of the atmosphere on stone placed in a building.
2 Changes are produced in the course of the geological ages
which can not possibly be effected in the length of time that a
3 The obtaining of a measure of the time necessary for dis-
tinct alteration to appear in a building stone and for the time
required for the alteration to proceed through different stages
is not assisted at all by observations on geological weathering.
The microscope beyond all doubt is the most valuable single ad-
junct for the laboratory investigation of structural stone. There
is no other method that at once yields so many important facts and
with so little outlay of time or expenditure for equipment.
The information which may be had from the examination of
rock samples with the microscope include,: (i) the identity of the
various mineral ingredients, from those of macroscopic size down
to the finest particles : sulphides, carbonates and any other harmful
components are quickly revealed; (2) the size, form, interlockment
or cementation of the grains; (3) the compactness of the rock, or
its relative porosity ; (4) the condition of the minerals with respect
to weathering; (5) the relative proportion of the different minerals.
As minerals are definite chemical compounds, the determination of
the relative abundance of each variety affords a measure for reckon-
ing the quantitative chemical composition. The results are not so
accurate as those obtained by actual chemical analysis, but in ex-
1 Department of Mines, Ottawa, v. i, p. 57. 1912.
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 37
perienced hands the method can be made to give the essential
features with sufficient accuracy for all practical purposes.
The microscope used for rock examination is of special con-
struction, differing from the ordinary instrument chiefly in the use
of polarized light which is secured by two Nicol prisms, one of
which is placed below the stage and the other either in the tube or
above the eyepiece.
Rock samples for examination under the microscope must be
reduced to such thinness that they are perfectly transparent. This
means a thickness of o.i mm or less. The sections are prepared
from chips an inch or so in diameter that are broken off from
the rock sample with a small hammer, or better from fiat pieces cut
with the diamond saw. These are ground smooth on one surface
with the aid of a lap wheel or glass plate, using emery or car-
borundum and water for abrasive. When a perfectly flat surface,
free of scratches, is obtained, this is cemented to the object glass
with Canada balsam. The other side is then ground down until
the section is of the required thinness, after which the sample is
cleaned and a cover glass cemented on it with balsa,m. The
preparation is permanent and can be filed away for future reference.
To determine the proportions of the minerals in the section, from
which determination the chemical composition may be reckoned with
some degree of accuracy, the method adopted is that first devised
by Delesse ^ and later perfected by Rosiwal.^ This depends upon
the principle that the areas occupied by the several minerals in the
section bear the same relations as the respective volumes of the
minerals. Delesse made a tracing of the outlines of the minerals,
gave each species a separate color, and then applied the tracing to
a sheet of tinfoil. The latter was divided carefully along the
boundaries of the minerals and the pieces corresponding to each
species were separately weighed. The result gave the proportions
of the several ingredients. The Rosiwal modification consists of
tracing on the cover glass a network of lines equally spaced and
intersecting each other at right angles. The ratio of the total length
of the lines to the sum of the intercepts of the mineral particles on
the lines is approximately the ratio of the total surface to the area
occupied by each mineral. The accuracy of the method, according
1 Delesse, M. A. Precede mecanique pour determiner la composition des
roches. Paris, 1862.
2 Rosiwal, August. Ueber geometrische Gesteinsanalysen, Verhandlungen
der K. K. geologischen Reichsanstalt zu Wien. v. 32, p. 143-75-
38 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
to Rosiwal, is indirectly proportional to the average size of grain
of the rock and directly to the length of the selected system of lines.
A further improvement of this method has been recently de-
scribed by Hirschwald.^ It consists of a microscopic eyepiece in
the focus of which are placed two glass plates, one ruled with
a set of ordinates and the other with abscissas, the latter plate being
movable along the edge of the first by means of a screw turned
with the fingers. The microscope, when focused upon the section,
shows the two scales superposed upon the surface ; the movable or
horizontal scale is used to measure the intercepts of the mineral
particles. By readjusting the movable scale, the measurement may
be repeated until the area of view is covered. It is recommended
by Hirschwald that the measurements be taken at such intervals
as to cover the average grains by two or three readings, the number
depending on the size of the particles.
The microscopic method of approximating the chemical compo-
sition is considered by Hirschwald to be preferable to chemical
analysis in some instances. Such is the case with sandstones that
contain deooimposable ingredients and those of hard siliceous nature,
and it serves equally well to determine the amount of cement.
There is need of much care in selecting the samples for micro-
scopic examination to insure that they represent a fair average of
the rock. It is also unsafe to depend on the evidence obtained
from a single section. As the area of a section is usually less than
a scjuare inch, the minerals may not be present in it in the same
proportion as in the rock mass, especially if the grain be coarse.
Inaccurate results are often much worse than none, as illustrated by
the misinformation that is often circulated by quarry owners and
which sometimes originates from supposedly reliable sources.
The making of a complete chemical analysis of a rock is a labor-
ious operation that requires special equipment and much chemical
knowledge and experience. It is also expensive. For ordinary
practical purposes, and when the stone is not limestone or quartzite
for use in metallurgy or chemical manufacture, such analysis is
In the case of igneous rocks, it is quite important to determine
the water, carbon dioxide and sulphur. The water and carbon
1 Hirschwald, J. Handbuch der Bautechnischen Gesteinspriifung, Berlin,
1912, p. 146-47, 167-72.
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 39
dioxide afford a measure of the freshness of the rock, but should
be supplemented by microscopic study. The sulphur establishes
the relative proportions of the sulphides — pyrite, marcasite or
The presence of carbonates in igneous rocks can be quickly
determined by powdering a little of the sample and treating with
very dilute hydrochloric acid or equal amounts of acetic acid and
water. If carbonates are present, bubbles will form around the
powder and gradually rise to the surface.
The laboratory testing of stone is an. attempt to ascertain the
resistance which the material will offer to the various stresses that
arise in engineering and architectural structures. The practice
has but recently come into favor in this country, but it has been
followed abroad for a longer time. The general interest now taken
in the subject may be ascribed largely to the initiative of the
engineering staff's connected with highway and other public
One of the first reports on quarry materials to give attention to
their physical testing and to embody a fairly comprehensive series of
results is Smock's " Building Stone in New York." ^ The data of
the tests relate to specific gravity, absorption, the action of acids,
change of temperature and the influence of heat.
It is well to note that the capacity of a rock to resist the many
variations of strain can not be estimated by any single physical
test. Crushing strength alone means little as to the quality of stone
for use in street work or its probable behavior when placed in an
arch. Moreover, physical tests of any kind do not fill the place
of microscopic investigation of the mineral association aild textures
of rocks and their full value is attained only when they are com-
bined with the results of study into all the general properties of the
Thp most comprehensive work on the subject of testing of stone
undoubtedly is Hirschwald's " Handbuch der Bautechnischen
Gesteinspriifung," which has already been referred to. The work
is a scientific exposition of the subject based on actual results ob-
tained by the use of various physical, chemical and microscopic
methods of investigation. The volume was issued in 1912 so that
1 N. Y. State Museum Bui. 10. 1890.
40 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
it can be said to represent the most modern practice, with special
reference, of course, to German and continental methods.
The different physical tests are designed to yield information
as to the following properties : specific gravity and weight ; porosity ;
absorption ; hardness and toughness ; strength under compressive,
transverse, tensile and shearing stresses ; wear or abrasion ; resist-
ance to fire; and durability when exposed to frost, changes of tem-
perature and other weathering influences. These will be briefly
discussed in their order.
Specific gravity and weight. The specific gravity of any ma.terial
is its weight compared with an equal volume of pure water. In
the case of solid bodies like rocks that are insoluble in water, the
determination is carried out by weighing the samples in air and
then finding their weight when suspended in distilled water. The
weight in air divided by the loss of weight in water is the specific
gravity. The matter, however, is not quite so simple, owing to the
fact that rocks are more or less porous and there is some trouble in
securing moisture-free samples for the first weighing ^and complete
saturation of the samples for the second. This can be accomplished,
however, in the following manner : samples of cubical shape, weigh-
ing ajt least 40 or 50 gramms, are heated in an air bath at 110° C.
until they show no further loss of moisture, when they are placed in
a desiccator and allowed to cool. After weighing, they are immersed
in distilled water which at first may be boiled to hasten the expul-
sion of air. They should be maintained under water for a period
of from three to four days, when they will have reached a con-
dition of practically complete saturation. They are then removed
from the bath, their outer surfaces rapidly dried with blotting paper
and then weighed. It will be found that determinations made in
this way are fairly accurate, and there is less opportunity for error
through faulty manipulation than by determining the gravity with
the use of a picnometer or specific gravity bottle. It gains a
further advantage in that the same samples and weights are useful
in finding the porosity.
The weight of stone per cubic foot is usually determined by multi-
plying the specific gravity into the weight of a cubic foot of water,
which is 62.4 pounds. This is sufficiently accurate for the closely
textured rocks, but with porous sandstones a deduction must be
made equivalent to the weight of the same rock required to fill
the pore space. A more direct method is to weigh a cubic or rec-
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 4I
tangular piece of the rock of known volume after drying to constant
weight. From that result, the weight per cubic foot is readily
Porosity. The determination of porosity is one of the most im-
portant physical tests. The pores of rocks admit moisture, and its
expansion on freezing exerts such pressure as may lead to disrup-
tion of the material. The scaling of some sandstones when exposed
to frost action is very noticeable. Furthermore, under equal con-
ditions porosity afifords some indication as to the resistance stones
will ofifer to the solvent action of waters and vapors and to the
penetration of smoke, dust and other discoloring agencies. It has
been held by some writers that th^i porosity is an absolute measure
of the durability of stone; but chis is an overstatement of the
matter, since the size of the pores and their relations to each other,
that is, whether isolated or connected by capillary channels, has as
much, if not more, influence than the absolute porosity.
The total pore space or porosity is readily calculated from the
determinations for specific gravity, according to the method already
described. The difiference between the weights of the samples dry
and saturated gives the amount of water absorbed in the pores. By
multiplying this quantity by the specific gravity, we obtain an ex-
pression for the weight of rock required to fill the vacant pore
space. This, added to the dry weight, gives the total weight the
sample would have if there were no pore space. If the weight of
rock required to fill the pores is then divided by the latter and the
result multiplied by 100, we have the porosity expressed in per-
centage of the volume of the sample. This method devised by
Buckley has been commonly followed in the reports on American
building stones. It has been used in the determinations made in
connection with the present report.
German testing laboratories measure the porosity somewhat
dififerently by determining the specific gravity of the powdered rock
and the so-called " Raumgewicht " or density of the stone inclusive
of pores. The latter is found by dividing the weight of the sample
expressed in grams by the volume in cubic centimeters. The
difiference of the two values divided by the specific gravity and the
result multiplied by 100 gives what is called the coefficient of
1 Consult Hirschwald, " Handbuch der bautechnischen Gesteinspriifung,"
NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
Absorption. The absorption of a rock is the ratio between the
weight of the absorbed water and the dry weight of the sample. It
is determinable, therefore, from the same measurements that are
used in finding the porosity. The weight of the absorbed water is
divided by the weight of the dry stone; the result multiplied by lOO
gives absorption as a percentage of the mass. The relation between
porosity and absorption varies with the specific gravity of the stone,
but the latter commonly amounts to about one-half of the former.
The ratio of absorption, any more than the porosity, does not
afiford an absolute index of the permeability of stone to water.
Parks ^ has conducted an interesting experiment to test the perme-
ability in samples having different porosities. Samples of rock 3 mm
thick were cut at right angles to the bedding planes. Through these
pieces water was forced under pressure of 15 pounds to the square
inch and the amount of flow in one hour recorded. It was found
that stones having less than i per cent of pore space were prac-
tically impermeable to water under that pressure. The results on
some sedimentary rocks are as follows :
CU. CM OF
WATER AN HOUR
Hardness and toughness. Hardness is a property of homo-
geneous materials like minerals by which they resist penetration. It
lacks the same degree of definiteness when applied to rocks which
are composed of various minerals and perhaps held together by
some cementing substance of still different nature. In such condi-
tions, it may be regarded as the resultant of the hardness of the
various ingredients plus the bond betv/een them.
There is no uniformity in the practice of determining hardness,
which is an important feature of materials to be used in paving and
street work generally. One method follows that in use for compar-
ing the hardness of minerals and is based on the rate of penetration
1 " Building and Ornamental Stones of Canada, Ottawa, 1912," v. i, p. 61-62..
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 43
of a drill. The common practice in laboratories for the testing of
roadstoiies is to subject a specimen of definite dimen'sions to the
abrading action of a grinding disc. The loss of weight after the
disc has revolved a certain number of times is a measure of the
hardness. In the laboratories of the State Department of Highways
at Albany, the test is carried out on a core of rock, i inch in
diameter and 3 to 4 inches long, obtained with a diamond, drill.
The ends of the core are faced off and then the latter is weighed.
One end is placed against a Dorry grinding machine, so as to bear
with constant pressure upon the disc upon which quartz sand of
standard quality and size is fed. The disc is revolved 500 revolu-
tions at the rate of 2000 revolutions an hour, when the core is taken
out, reversed end for end, and ground for another 500 revolutions.
The loss in weight in grams is noted. One-third of this loss sub-
tracted from 20 is the relative hardness. A hardness below 14
is considered soft, between 14 and 17 medium and above 17 high.
Toughness may be defined as the resistance to rupture from im-
pact b}^ a falling body. It differs from hardness in that it depends
mainly upon the texture of the material, more especially the manner
in which the components are interlocked. Fibrous aggregates like
those of talc, serpentine and gypsum, though possessing little hard-
ness, are very resistant to rupture, as shown by the difficulty in
pulverizing such materials in a ball mill. Tests for toughness are
commonly carried out on roadstones, but have less value for build-
ing materials. The method of testing toughness as adopted in the
New York State Department of Highways is as follows :
The toughness test is made by taking two core pieces
one inch in diameter which have been obtained with the
diamond drill, as was done for the hardness test. The
ends of these core pieces are accurately and carefully
smoothed off so as to form cylinders i inch in height.
They are then placed on a firm, level bearing in an impact
machine, securely clamped and subjected to blows through
a one-kilogram weight. The first blow of the hammer
is from a height of i centimeter. Each succeeding blow
is from a height i centimeter greater than the preceding
one. The number of blows, which equals the drop ex-
pressed in centimeters of the last blow required to break
the core, is considered as the toughness of the stone. The
toughness of the stone is represented by the average of
the two core pieces broken. A toughness below 13 is
considered low, between 13 and 19 medium and above
44 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
Strength. The crushing strength is determined by applying a
gradually increasing pressure upon a cube placed between two steel
plates until the stone breaks down. It is usual to note also the
pressure at which the first crack occurs. The value of the results
depends upon the care used in preparing the cubes, which should
be sawed, not dressed to size with the hammer, and also upon
the relation of the faces of the cube to the structure of the stone in
the quarry. In sedimentary rocks, the pressure should be applied at
right angles to the bedding. In granites and other igneous rocks
that have rift and grain, tests should be made upon three samples
of each rock, so as to find the strength perpendicular respectively
to the rift, grain and heading. Even with the greatest care in the
selection of samples and their preparation, the tests will show wide
variations in the crushing strength of rock from the same quarry.
Nearly any quarry material, however, has sufficient strength to
withstand any compressive force that is likely to develop in the
walls of a building. Buckley states that a stone with a crushing
strength of 5000 pounds to the square inch is sufficiently strong for
any ordinary building.^
The transverse strength is determined on rectangular pieces which
are supported at the ends on knife edges and subjected to a pressure
in the middle from another knife edge. The test has some value for
stone to be used in arches, lintels, and similar purposes.
Tensile strength is seldom determined on stone, although com-
monly tested in cements. It is equally, if not more important,
however, than the compressive strength, as it measures the bonding
power and gives some indication as to the behavior of stones under
the internal stresses of contraction and expansion. Shearing
strength is measured by the resistance the stone ofifers to forces
tending to displace the particles with reference to each other. Tests
for it are rarely made.
Wear or abrasion. The resistance to wear by abrasion may be
said to be dependent upon the qualities, of hardness and toughness.
It is useful to determine such resistance in macadam and paving
stones. The method employed in the State Department of High-
ways is to prepare with the aid of a breaking press, cubical samples
of from i^ to 25^ inches diameter, of which 50 will approximate
5 kilograms in weight. The pieces are then washed, dried, and
placed in a cast-iron cylinder, mounted at an angle of 30° with
the axis of rotation, and revolved for 10,000 revolutions at the rate
1 Building Stones of Wisconsin, p. 59.
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 45
of 2000 times an hour. The stone is then taken out, washed, dried
and the weight of material less than one-sixteenth of an inch in size
computed. The per cent of loss of the original weight is expressed
by the French coefficient which is obtained by dividing 40 by the
per cent of wear. Thus a stone which loses .4 per cent in weight
during the test would show a coefficient of wear of 10. A coefficient
of wear below 8 is considered low, between 8 and 13 medium, be-
tween 13 and 20 high and over 20 very high.
Resistance to fire. The resistance of stone to intense heat may
be considered one of the important qualities in building stones that
should be given consideration by the architect and builder, but
which is very often neglected. Fires in cities work great damage
upon stone structures. The test of extreme heat followed by sudden
chilling from the play of water upon the surface is one that very
few stones will pass through with strength and appearance unim-
paired. There is, however, considerable variation among different
building stones in respect to fire resistance, as may be observed in
their condition after a large conflagration like that of Baltimore or
San Francisco. Some buildings are completely ruined, so far as
the possibility of making any use of the stone work for reconstruc-
tion ; others are only damaged as to their exposed parts like the
cornices and window openings ; and some appear to be practically
Intense heat causes both physical and chemical changes in stone.
The most apparent effect is the spalling and cracking incident to
unequal expansion between the outer and inner parts of the blocks.
Stone has a very low capacity for transmitting heat; consequently,
the interior may be still comparatively cool while the surface is
intensely hot. This difference in temperature sets up a stress that
disrupts the stone or causes the outer part to flake off in successive
layers. The same process takes place in nature where changes of
temperature are extreme ; in the arid regions like the Great Basin,
the warmth of the sun after a cool night causes the scaling of bare
rock surfaces, but of course at a comparatively slow rate.
The disruption of rocks of complex mineral composition, such
as granite, is probably traceable to some extent to the loosening of
the bond between the ingredients through intergranular strain.
Quartz, feldspar and mica each has its own rate of expansion which
must produce a certain amount of differential thrust under rapid
temperature changes. Further, most granites hold occluded liquids
and gases in closed cavities which were imprisoned during the con-
solidation of the mass from its state of liquid fusion. These are
4-6 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
mainly found in the quartz which is the last ingredient to separate
out from an igneous magma. Under high temperature, they exert,
no doubt, a heavy pressure upon the walls of the minute cavities and
thus cooperate with the other influences in the work of disintegra-
From consideration of the physical characteristics, it would
appear that the varieties of rock having a close, firmly interlocked
fabric and simple mineral composition would prove the most re-
sistant to fire. Among the igneous rocks, granite might naturally
be expected to succumb more easily than a rock like syenite or
anorthosite which is composed mainly of feldspar, and actual tests
seem to bear out that inference. Some sandstones are very nearly
fireproof and limestones and marbles generally bear up well until
the heat is sufficient to effect crumbling through calcination. The
temperature necessary to produce incipient calcination of small cubes
of limestone, according to Buckley,^ lies between 1000° and
2000° F. McCourt ^ states that tests on some New York limestones
did not show calcination at 550° C. (1022° F.).
A temperature sufficient to cause flaking and cracking of granite,
as well as sandstone and marble, may be attained in a fire that is
confined to the comtents of a single building. The State Capitol fire
of March 29, 191 1, which extended to only a part of the western
wing of that building, played havoc with the granite columns and
ornamental work, so that it was necessary to replace them wher-
ever they came in direct contact with the flames. The columns were
from Connecticut and Nova Scotia quarries. Some of the sandstone
and marbles used in the interior work were cracked, but as a rule
stood up better than the granite. The granite on the exterior of 'the
building (a medium-grained gray stone from Maine) was injured
to a minor extent, except in the lintels and cornices and other ex-
posed parts, which were more or less cracked or disintegrated.
Exposure to fire may bring about more or less change of color,
through oxidation of any ferrous iron compounds or the dehydra-
tion of limonite. It may also break down or expel some of the
organic compounds which are coloring agents in limestones.
Tests for fire resistance are usually conducted. on small samples
of cubic shape, from one to four inches thick. The larger the sam-
ples, the more nea'dy will the results approach those produced on
building materials in an actual conflagration.
1 0/>. cit., p. 385.
2 Fire Tests on Some New York Building Stones. N. Y. State Mus.
Bui. 100, p. 22. 1906.
Effects of fire upon building stone. Above are shown spalls of granite
from a column, jjelow a cracked and broken sandstone cap; both are from
the State Capitol, Albany, after the fire of March 29, 191 1.
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 47
McCourt/ who experimented with some of the principal building
stones from local quarries, employed three-inch cubes, making, so
far as the materials would allow, six tests on each sample. Four
tests were performed in a Seger gas furnace in which one cube at
a time was heated. The heat was applied gradually until a tempera-
ture of 550° C. was reached, this being maintained for half an hour.
The cube was then taken out and allowed to cool in the air. A
second sample was heated to the same temperature and then chilled
suddenly by a stream of water. The third tube was treated in the
same way as the first, except it was heated to 850°, and the fourth
heated to 850° was chilled with water. Five tests were made with
a gas blast to imitate, so far as practicable, the actual play of flame
in a conflagration. On one sample, the blast operated for ten
minutes, enveloping three sides in a steady stream ; after cooling
for five minutes, the cube again received the blast during ten min-
utes, after which it was cooled. The second cube was subjected to
the flame for ten minutes and then a strong stream of water along
with the blast for a period of five minutes. Then the water was
turned oft" and the flame continued for another five minutes, after
which, for five minutes more, the flame and water together were
allowed to act on the sample. For the details for the tests, the
reader should consult the paper itself. In brief, the results showed
that all stones were fairly resistant to a temperature of 550° C.
(1022° F.), and curiously, the granites showed up somewhat better
than the others. At 850° C. (1562° F.), which probably represents
the degree of heat reached in a conflagration, perhaps exceeding the
temperature in some cases, all the stones were more or less injured,
the amount of damage varying with the individual cubes. The
granites and gneisses cracked and spalled. The sandstones parted
along the bedding planes, a few developing crossyfractures. The
limestones were little injured up to the point where calcination
began, but after that they failed badly. The marbles developed
cracks before the calcination temperature. The results, as pointed
out by McCourt, were indicative of the effects of flame and
water upon exposed stone work like cornices, lintels etc., rather
than upon stone laid in walls which would suffer much less injury.
Action of frost. Structural stone that is exposed to the recurrent
effects of freezing and thawing may suffer more or less damage
therefrom in the course of time. The ability to resist this kind of
weathering is to some extent measurable by porosity, since it is the
1 Op. cit.
48 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
pressure exerted by the freezing of the included moisture that
causes the damage. As ah-eady stated, however, neither the porosity
nor the ratio of absorption can be regarded as an index of the
resistance to such action under all conditions, since the character of
the pore cavities exercises probably even more influence than their
Other things being equal, if the pores are sufficiently large and
connected to permit the fairly rapid escape of the absorbed water,
the stone will prove more resistant than one having an intimate
network of fine or capillary pores.
The expansion of water in changing to solid ice amounts to one-
tenth of its volume. It is, therefore, necessary that the pores
should be filled to about nine-tenths of their capacity before the
frost begins to become effective ; otherwise, there will be room for
the expansion to take place without exerting any pressure. In
nature, the condition of saturation in stone is very rarely approached
and it is difficultly attainable even with the methods employed in
the laboratory for determining porosity. It is, therefore, the degree
to which the pores of a stone can be filled under natural conditions
that determines the resistance to frost. The experimental tests in
which complete saturation is established by long-continued soaking
or with the aid of a vacuum are too severe for practical use.
Hirschwald found that pieces of sandstone and granite removed
from a building in Berlin at the end of December, about the begin-
ning of freezing weather, and after a rainfall of 80 mm in the
months of November and December, showed only a fraction of
the moisture they were capable of absorbing. The specimens were
taken from a height of 20 cm above and below the ground level.
The samples of sandstone contained from one twenty-fourth to
one twenty-eighth the amount of water tliey would hold after one
hour's immersion. The granite from above ground level held about
one-third and that from below the same quantity that the granite
would absorb in one hour.
The quantity of water absorbed by stone under natural condi-
tions divided by the amount the same stone requires for the entire
filling of the pores is termed the saturation coefficient. The danger
point is reached when the coefficient is .9, as with more than that
proportion the water on freezing will expand and exert pressure
upon the cavity walls. According to Hirschwald, who bases his
conclusions on about twelve hundred tests of different stones, the
practical limit may be taken at ,8.
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 49
The method for determining frost resistance as described by that
writer is to subject the samples after soaking to a temperature of
— 15° C. for four hours. The sample is then thawed in water at
20° C. The operation is repeated twenty-five times after which
it is examined for any weakening of strength or for fractures.
The degree of saturation to which the samples are subjected at the
beginning depends upon whether it is a matter of testing stones
for use in dams or similar works submerged in water or for ordinary
structures. In the former case, they are soaked for a period of
30 days. In testing architectural stones, they are placed in water
for a period of from 2 to 13 hours, depending on their density.
In Smock's report are included the results of several tests on
New York building stones. The samples weighing from 300 to
400 grams were saturated with water and subjected to alternate
freezing and thawing seven times. All the granites and limestones
passed the tests uninjured so far as noted; likewise the marbles,
except one sample from Pleasantville ; and the sandstones, with the
exception of one sample from Oswego Falls. The two samples
specified developed checks after repeated freezings.
50 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
MAIN FEATURES OF THE GEOLOGY OF NEW YORK
The physical features of our State as they now appear have
their beginnings far back in the remote periods of geologic time.
Among the rock formations underlying its surface are some of the
oldest that are anywhere exposed on the American continent, pos-
sibly antedating the appearance of life, and at any rate so com-
pletely altered by the vicissitudes of the ages that they show no
recognizable organic remains and few of their original physical
structures. Tt is in those Precambric formations as represented in
the Adirondacks and the southeastern Highlands that the earliest
records of the physical development of our State are to be sought.
There is naturally much doubt about the conditions which pre-
vailed in the remote periods of time included within the Precambric
era. It would appear, however, that the continental land surface
already existed in general outline in that era, although of course
the area was not confined by the present bounds. Most of the
Precambric formations now exposed are gathered in the north on
the Canadian side of the boundary; the southern line of this central
or nuclear area follows the St Lawrence river from the Gulf to
the Great Lakes. But there are important extensions of this old
land to the south of Lake Superior in Michigan, Wisconsin and
Minnesota and also one considerable area farther east in the
Adirondacks. The Hudson Highlands, a part of the Appalachian
highland, also have Precambric strata along their main axis.
The lowest formations of this old land surface which are largely
of igneous character may be separately' classed in the Archean
system. Upon their exposed parts the agencies of construction
and destruction were operative probably in a similar manner and
with equal energy as now. From the erosional waste, extensive
deposits of limestone, shale and sandstone were accumulated at a
later period beneath the waters which encroached on the land.
These old sediments, aside from their highly metamorphosed states,
are not essentially different from those accumulated during succeed-
ing ages. Volcanic forces no doubt had their part in the develop-
ment of the structure, but all vestiges of the ancient lava flows
have been swept away and only the underlying channels are now in
evidejnce with their fillings of diabase and porphyry.
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 5 1
In the Adirondack region no basement or crystalline complex
assignable to the Archean period has been discovered. The oldest
igneous rocks apparently have intrusive relations with the sediments
whenever they come in contact with the latter, and consequently
the first recognizable elements are of clastic origin, classed as
Grenville or Algonkian. These consist of crystalline limestones
or marbles, banded and foliated gneisses, hornblende and mica
schists, and quartzites. They are interfolded with the early igneous
gneisses and have been invaded and injected by all the Precambric
intrusions. They have consequently a patchy distribution, though
forming belts of rather wide extent on the northwestern side. They
bear no recognizable life remains and the only evidence that life
existed at the time is the abundance of carbon in the form of
carbonates and graphite. The more important quarry materials
of Grenville age are the limestones which yield building and monu-
mental marbles and are sources of high-grade limes.
The deep-seated igneous rocks consist of granites (both gneissoid
and massive), syenite, gabbro and anorthosite. Among the granites
may be recognized at least two classes based on their relative age ;
an older, much compressed, finely granular variety that has been
squeezed out and elongated into beltlike bodies, and a younger,
massive, coarser type that occurs in the form of bathyliths and
bosses. In the earlier series may be present parts of the Archean
basement if they are anywhere existent. The younger granites are
most useful for c[uarry purposes. The Adirondack syenite has
sometimes a reddish color, like that of much of the granite into
which it grades in places, but the characteristic and by far the
most widely developed variety is a green augite syenite, usually
with the original textures and structures well preserved. There
are, however, crushed and more or less foliated types of the green
syenite. The gabbros are found in dikes and bosses as separate
intrusions and as border phases of the anorthosite with which there
appears to be complete gradation. The anorthosite constitutes an
immense bathylith in the east central section of the Adirondacks,
the largest intrusion of the whole region and, except for a few
areas of Grenville which were probably engulfed during its approach
to the surface, a practically unbroken mass. The several periods
of igneous activity to which these deep-seated masses may be as-
signed were probably times of crustal upheaval and metamorphism,
at least the varied conditions of foliation, crushing and recrystalliza-
tion which are exhibited by the intrusions seem to be significant
of repeated modifications by dynamic agencies. As the last mani-
52 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
festation of igneous action in the Precambric era came intrusions
of diabase, reaching the surface no doubt and forming lavas, but
now found only in the filled-up channels or dikes below the old
outlets. There are countless numbers of these dikes in the eastern
and northern Adirondacks. They are all younger than the last
period of general metamorphism and have remained practically
unchanged, except by surface weathering.
The Highlands region, according to the more recent investiga-
tions which have been carried on chiefly by Berkey,^ presents quite
an array of Precambric rocks quite similar to those already enu-
merated for the Adirondacks, except that here the acid or more
siliceous types greatly predominate in the igneous complex. The
main element in the geology of the central area is a group of
gneisses, which are known to be composite, though they have not
been definitely classified. They include the oldest formations and
such contrasting representatives as the massive granite gneiss of
Storm King in the northern section and the foliated banded Ford-
ham gneiss which has sedimentary affinities and is widely distributed
in Westchester county. There is also a considerable development
of mixed types, probably an involved aggregate of igneous and
sedimentary derivatives. Small bands of crystalline limestone and
quartzite are found in the central Highlands and, with the older
sedimentary gneisses, constitute a series which is placed by Berkey
in the Grenville. There seems to be no recognizable parts of the
Arohean in this section. The Precambric intrusives are mostly
granites, with a few syenites and diorites. Igneous activities did
not cease, however, with the close of the Precambric, as was the
case in the Adirondacks, but continued as late at least as Siluric
The older gneisses in the region are succeeded by a group of
metamorphosed sedimentary formations including crystalline lime-
stones, schists and quartzites. These find strong representation in
the southern section where the limestones have some importance
for building marbles and lime-burning. While they are certainly
younger than the gneisses of the central Highlands, their precise
place and relations are not altogether clear. It is possible, as has
been suggested by Merrill, that they are the more thoroughly
metamorphosed equivalents of the Hudson river beds to the north
of the Highlands, in which case they belong to the Cambric and
1 See specially " Structure and Stratigraphic Features of the Basal Gneisses
of the Highlands." N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 107/ 1907.
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 53
Lower Siluric systems. Berkey would separate them into an earlier
Precambric and a later or Paleozoic group, of which the Precambric
group is made up of the Lowerre quartzite, In wood limestone and
Manhattan schist — the members that belong more strictly to the
Highlands region. The later, or Paleozoic formations, are the
Poughquag quartzite, Wappinger limestone and Hudson River
slates ; they occur only in small down-faulted areas in the Highlands,
but have a very widespread distribution north of there, particularly
the slates which outcrop along the whole central Hudson valley.
The Yonkers gneiss may be mentioned in connection with the
Precambric, as an igneous derivative, later than the Fordham
gneiss with which it is in contact. It occurs in a long narrow belt
and in isolated bodies in southern Westchester county. According
to the earlier interpretation, as advanced by Merrill, its age is later
than the Hudson River slates. The rock has considerable local im-
portance as a building stone.
The period of Precambric history, so far as it can be formulated
from the rocks of the New York areas, began, therefore, with the
accumulation of sediments composed of quartzose, argillaceous and
calcareous materials that are collectively known as the Grenville
series. They miust have been derived from some preexisting rocks
which, if still found anywhere, represent the Archean or basal
complex of the Lake Superior and Canadian regions, but so far
no vestiges of this older surface have been identified. Subsequent
to their deposition, there was a long lapse of time in which the
forces of upheaval, metamorphism and igneous activity were mani-
fested at intervals on a tremendous scale. The sediments were
compressed, plicated and completely recrystallized. Their lower
parts were invaded and broken up by deep-seated intrusions,
representing several different periods and rock varieties. Volcanic
energy was also displayed and led no doubt to extensive accumula-
tions of lavas and other igneous materials at the surface. By these
agencies, the land areas must have acquired a very considerable
elevation, probably with a rugged mountainous topography -to which
the surface of the present day is hardly comparable as to altitude
and massive features. Upon such land surfaces erosion would be
very active and powerful in its results. Destruction thus was in
progress while the upbuilding went on ; while in the latter part of
the Precambric time there was a long period of continued erosion
without compensation by uplift. The effects of this were the re-
moval of an immense but unknown thickness of rock from the
upper zone, leaving the deeper buried parts exposed much as they
54 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
are today and greatly reducing the inequalities of contour. The
waste thus derived was washed toward the sea to form the first
of the normal fossiliferous rocks.
The Paleozoic era began with the deposition of sediments upon the
uneven surface of the Precambric crystalline rocks. It appears that
with the close of the Precambric era the land which had remained
above water since Grenville time underwent a gradual subsidence,
bringing the outer borders within reach of the sea. With its sub-
mergence there were formed stratified deposits which contain the
earliest records of life that are at all well defined and abundant.
The lowest members, belonging to the Lower and Middle Cambric
groups, are not so widely developed in this State as the Upper or
Saratogian group in which lies the Potsdam sandstone. This is
exposed in a rather broad but variable belt on the north and north-
western sides of the Adirondacks where it still preserves a horizontal
position on the eroded edges of the Precambric rocks. It is also
present in the Lake Champlain valley and on the southeastern edge
of the Adirondacks as broken areas of a once continuous belt. In
its characteristic form it is a cjuartzite, and a very hard, durable
stone. The lowermost Cambric beds include the Poughquag quartz-
ite in southern Dutchess county and the Georgia slates found in
the metamorphic area along the New England boundary. Besides
the Potsdam cjuartzite, the Saratogian group also contains some
limestones of which the better known member, the Little Falls
dolomite, is quite extensively developed in the Mohawk valley and
is the basis of quarry operations. The limestones are usually im-
pure, representing a transition from the sandstones to the high-
grade limestones above.
With the continuance of the submergence and consequent deep-
ening of the waters, the deposition of the Champlainic or Lower
Siluric beds was begun without any break or interruption to mark
the line of division with the Cambric group. The more important
representatives in the lower part consist of limestones, of which
the Tribes Hill, and Beekmantown and Chazy members may be
named. The first has little importance areally, but the Beekman-
town (inclusive of the middle and upper beds as earlier defined) is
quite widely distributed in the Champlain valley. The Chazy is
found in the same region from Saratoga county north to the Cana-
dian border ; it is one of the purest calcium limestones in the
State. The subsidence of the land surface continued and the waters
encroached more and more upon it. This provided opportunity for
the deposition of the Mohawkian (Trenton) group of limestones,
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 55
the most widespread and the thickest of the calcareous sediments.
Among the individual members are included the Lowville, Black
River and Trenton beds in the order of sequence. In the lower
section they are heavily bedded and quite pure, but become shaly
toward the top. They have importance for building stone, cement
and lime manufacture. They are often highly fossiliferous. They
occur in the Champlain valley, but are more prominent on the
Vermont side than on the New York shores. Continuous with
the Vermont area, a belt extends across Washington county into
Warren and Saratoga counties. Another large belt begins in the
Mohawk valley near Little Falls and extends northwesterly with
increasing width to the St Lawrence river, overlapping onto the
Adirondack crystalline rocks. The upper limestone beds of the
Trenton pass gradually into shales, indicating an influx of mud.
This condition lasted through the Cincinnatian period when the
Utica, Frankfort and Pulaski shales of central New York were
laid down. Li the Hudson valley and eastward there was a marked
preponderance of shales over limestones in the sedimentation
throughout the whole Lower Siluric period; the great mass of shales
which has come to be known as the Flud'sion River formati'on began
to be deposited in fact as early as Cambric time.
At the close of the Lower Siluric period, the Taconic disturbance
interrupted sedimentation in the area along the Hudson river and
upraised that section into dry land. The agencies of compression
and metamorphism which were forceful enough to produce a highly
folded and more or less metamorphosed condition in the shales,
limestones and sandstones of the east did not extend their effects
very far to the west. The Adirondack and Mohawk valley forma-
tions were not changed noticeably or disturbed from their normal
position, though possibly there was some faulting which initiated
the great meridional breaks along the eastern and southern Adiron-
dacks. In the Highlands regions the effects may have been much
more pronoun-ced, as indicated by the intrusion of the great boss of
the Cortland rocks. Other deep-seated invasions may be repre-
sented by the serpentine masses of Staten Island and Rye and by
the Harrison diorite, though these are possibly of earlier date.
The Ontario or Upper Siluric period was continuous with the
Lower Siluric as regards sedimentation in the interior of the State,
though on the borders of the Taconic land surface the two series
of formations are separated by a strong erosional unconformity.
The Upper Siluric was a time of shallow water accumulations.
In the basal members, as represented by the Oswego and Medina
56 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
sandstones and the Oneida conglomerate, the materials consisted
largely oif the coarser detritus washed do-wn by rapid streams and
deposited close to the shores. The Medina, however, contains
much shale near the top. The Niagara formations are mainly
shale (CHnton and Rochester) and dolomite (Lockport and
Guelph). During Clinton time, the waters were probably rather
shoal with off-shore bars sheltering them from the sea as indicated
by the precipitation of iron ores along with sandstones, shales and
limestones. The formations up to the Guelph had been deposited
along a nearly east-west shore line that lay to the south of the
Canadian and Adirondack highlands ; they are now found in belt-
like areas extending across the central and western parts of the
State. In the Cayugan period the zone of sedimentation extended
into southeastern New York on the shore of the Appalachian pro-
taxis. The Salina shales formed at the opening of the period are
characterized by the deposits of rock salt and gypsum which prob-
ably resulted from the evaporation of the sea waters in confined
basins. The succeeding formations include the Cobleskill, Rondout
and Manlius limestones. The Medina sandstone at the base of
the Upper Siluric is one of the more important building stones
in the State and the various limestones named find utilization for
lime, cement or constructional purposes.
The change to Devonic time was very gradual and no break
occurred in the sedimentation. In the first or Helderbergian period
the deposits were mainly calcareous and restricted to the central and
eastern parts. The Oriskanian period began with limestones, but
afterward the Oriskany sandstone, a very persistent, chiefly arenace-
ous, formation was deposited. To Ulsterian time belongs the Onon-
daga limestone, one of the very important calcareous formations,
largely quarried in the central and western sections. With the
Erian period began the accumulation of the great series of Devonic
shales and sandstones that spread over the whole southern plateau
section of the State from the Catskills and Helderbergs west to the
Pennsylvania border. The sandstone members are the bluestone
quarried for flagging, curbing and building stone and range in age
from the Hamilton in the Erian period to the Chemung at the top
of the Devoniic. In the Senecan period occurred an interval oi
limestone deposition in the central part represented by the Tully
The Carbonic era introduced at the start no marked variation in
the sedimentation. The representatives include shales and sand-
stones with conglomerate at the top ; the last being the equivalent
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 57
of a part of the Pottsville conglomerate in Pennsylvania. There
are no coal beds anywhere exposed and the conditions requisite
for their production did not become very general until after the
last of the local beds were laid down. The Carbonic strata are
limited to a small area in the extreme southwestern section. The
long lapse of time that ensued to the close of the Carbonic and all
of the following Permic era find no record in the strata of New
The Appalachian revolution brought Paleozoic time to an end
and marked the final emergence of practically the whole mainland
area of New York from the sea. The disturbance resulted in a
broad uplift in the central and western parts of the State, but no
change in the relative attitude of the formations. . In the southeast,
however, along the main axis it developed in some folding as shown
by the Shawangunk mountains.
Mesozoic time was marked by only slight additions to the geo-
logical structure of the State. The Newark shales of late Triassic
age, which occur in Rockland and Richmond counties were prob-
ably formed in estuaries along the coast. During and after their
deposition, igneous activity was manifested by the intrusion of
diabase which, in places, reached the surface. The Palisades con-
sist of the exposed edge of a diabase sill intruded along shale and
sandstone beds of Newark age. With the last, or Cretacic, period
of Cenozoic time came the deposition of the older clays of Staten
Island and Long Island.
During the Cenozoic interval there were small accumulations of
Tertiary clays in the same areas. The most important event of the
era in its influence upon the local geology occurred in the Quatenary
period with the change of climate that brought on an ice invasion.
This advanced from north to south and spread over the whole
State, overriding even the higher mountains. The ice eroded away
the loose materials accumulated by weathering and also transported
immense quantities of rock which it plucked from the bared sur-
faces. The contours were rounded off and the land covered with
a mantle of clay and boulders (till), the transported materials
being also heaped up in the form of hills and ridges which are
known as moraines and drumlins. The drainage was also obstructed
or rem'odeled ; some large lakes occupied the main river valleys for
a time, as in the Hudson valley. The main effect of the ice upon
the rock surface was to remove the evidences of the long pre-
ceding period of weathering; consequently the rock outcrops appear
much fresher than they do in the unglaciated territory to the south
of New York.
58 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
THE CRYSTALLINE SILICATE ROCKS
PRELIMINARY DISCUSSION AND DEFINITION OF TERMS
Before entering upon the description of the different quarry-
materials, it may be well to explain that the classification of rocks
into three principal groups • — igneous, sedimentary and meta-
morphic — which has been followed hitherto scarcely serves the
purpose of an economic classification that is based on general
quarry features and uses. From a practical standpoint, there is
no line of division to be drawn between many metamorphic gneisses
and schists and the igneous rocks, since they may have the same
applications and present the same problems in quarrying and dress-
ing. It is customary, therefore, to include the metamorphosed
silicate rocks which are useful for structural stones with the mas-
sive igneous types, and that practice will be followed here.
The other metamorphic rocks include slates which ^are placed in
a separate division, marbles which with some nonmetamorphic lime-
stones are also separately described, and quartzites which from an
economic point of view belong in the class of sandstones.
The crystalline silicate rocks of the Adirondacks and southeastern
New York embrace a variety of individual types such as granite
in the strict sense, syenite, diorite, anorthosite, gabbro of different
kinds, diabase, and an assemblage of gneisses and schists that in-
cludes both igneous and sedimentary derivatives of varied mineral
As an architectural stone, granite outranks the other igneous
rocks of the State, which is true also wherever the crystalline
silicate rocks are exploited. Its prominence is due in part to its
relatively widespread occurrence, but largely to the combination
of qualities in regard to color, uniformity and ease of extraction
and dressing which is less often found in the other stones. The
prevalent taste for light-colored stone in buildings has much to
do with its general favor.
Although quarrymen and builders use the term granite rather
indiscriminately to designate almost any of the silicate rocks that
have been named, it probably belongs to a single rock series of
igneous origin which is characterized in composition by the pres-
ence of potash, feldspar and quartz. These two minerals always
predominate, but are often accompanied b}^ others in greater
Photomicrograph of granite gneiss, Little Falls. Large particles are quartz
and the rest mainly feldspar. Enlarged 22 times.
Photomicrograph of Vonkers granite. The components are quartz, feldspar
and mica. Enlarged 22 times.
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 59
or less quantity, especially plagioclase, which may share importance
with the potash feldspar, and by mica, hornblende or, rarely, py-
roxene. The potash feldspar is either microcline or orthoclase, the
former being the more common. Mica occurs in two forms —
the white or transparent muscovite and the black biotite ; usually
both are present, but if one alone occurs, it is more often biotite.
Hornblende is a rather common ingredient of local granites in
which it replaces the mica wholly or in part. Pyroxene, which
resembles hornblende in appearance when seen in the hand specimen,
is restricted to a few types which are related to the syenites.
Besides the more important or essential ingredients named,
granites usually contain a number of others in very small amount
which may be called accessory constituents. Such are apatite, zir-
con, rutile, magnetite, pyrite, fluorite, tourmaline and garnet. There
may be also various secondary minerals which have been derived
by chemical alteration from some of the original constituents ; thus
sericite, kaolin and cakite result from the alteration of feldspar,
and chlorite, serpentine, epidote and iron oxides result from the
dark iron-magnesia minerals.
The chemical composition of various local granites will be found
under the quarry localities elsewhere in this volume.
The texture of granite is usually even-grained, with the feld-
spar and quartz in particles of nearly the same magnitude. There
is no regularity, however, as to the size of the particles in granites
from different localities, and there is likely to be more or less
variation in that respect in different parts of the same mass. A
granite may be said to have a coarse texture if the crystals of
quartz or feldspar average over lO mm or 0.4 inch in diameter;
niediiiiii if the crystals range between 10 mm and 5 mm; and
fine if they are less than 5 mm. In the very fine sorts, the crystals
average under i mm. The same rule for classifying textures will
be applied to the other quarry stones.
The specific gravity of granite varies from about 2.5 to 2.75.
This corresponds to a weight, without allowance for porosity, of
from 156 to 172 pounds to the cubic foot. The average weight is
about 165 pounds,, and a cubic yard in the quarry may be taken
roundly as equal to 4500 pounds.
Granites are white, gray or pink in color, with occasional examples
showing a bright or deep red. The feldspar is the main coloring
agent, as it predominates over the other ingredients, but the gen-
eral color eft'ect is really a combination of the individual colors
of the minerals. Muscovite and fjuartz are colorless or translucent
60 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
white, and the iron-bearing ingredients (biotite, hornblende and
pyroxene) are usually black. By alteration to sericite or kaolin, the
feldspar loses its naturally brilliant luster and becomes opaque and
earthy. The coloration of some granites arises from infiltration of
iron compounds in sufficient amount to overcome the color values
of the silicates and impart their own effects. This is well instanced
by the yellow Mohegan granite from near Peekskill, the beautiful
color of which is traceable to a little limonite that has found its
way into the stone by means of the capillary pores. That the
color is not due to local alteration of the minerals is very apparent
from examination of thin sections which show the only iron-bear-
ing silicate (biotite) to be quite fresh in most of the stone and only
occasionally is a local deepening of the color observable about that
mineral. At the surface the biotite shows some alteration with the
production of chlorite, but there is very little iron discharged in
the process, altogether too little for the amount of limonite dis-
tributed through the body of the rock. Apparently the iron has
come from above, probably introduced in solution as a ferrous
compound to be subsequently oxidized to limonite.
SYENITE AND ANORTHOSITE
Syenite and anorthosite belong to separate rock series but, from
a practical standpoint, are much alike. Both consist of feldspar
as the essential ingredient, with accessory hornblende, biotite, py-
roxene and magnetite. In syenite, the feldspar is an alkali variety,
either 'mlicrocline or orthoclase, or an intergrowth of one of these
with albite, known as microperthite. Anorthosite, however, con-
sists of a basic plagioclase, usually labradorite, with one or more
of the iron-bearing silicates and usually ilmenite in the place of
Their structure is mostly even-granular and compact. As to
strength and durability, they are nowise inferior to the granites,
if not exceeding them in some elements which make for permanency.
In specific gravity they average a little higher than the latter and
range from about 2.65 to 2.90, with 2.75 perhaps as a mean value.
Their weight is accordingly around 175 pounds to the cubic foot.
They are not so abundantly distributed as granite, but where
they occur they constitute equally large bodies, sometimes forming
bosses and bathyliths of great size.
The color of syenite, and of anorthosite as well, is darker than
that of average granites. Green and blue tones are not rare, and
the luster from the feldspar is often very brilliant, making the
Photomicrograph of green syenite, Ausable Forks. Mostly feldspar, with
some quartz and pyroxene. Enlarged 22 times.
Photomicrograoh of anorthosite. Split Rock. The main component is lab-
radorite which appears stratiated. Enlarged 22 times.
QIJAKKY MA'I l',RIAI,S OI<- NICW YOKK 6l
sloiic scrvicc.'iMc foi' iiolislicil :\\\i\ (|c(oi";il ivc work. 'I he (Iccp
j^jiX'i'ti of llic Adiroiid.'irls syciiilc is very rliaraclcrisi ic. Aiiorl liositc
is c'itluT ^y:iy or dark' ^rvv.u, the Killer hciiif^ chaructcrislit: of the
fcl(ks|)ar ill its ori^dnal state, while Loay is jjcculiar to the crushed
and recryslani/.cd varieties. The nnernshed feldspar sliows the
bhie iridescenee conimon lo lahiadorile whitli adds iiiik li lo ihe
beauty of poh'shcfl samples.
'I'liere are no pernliarilies in the. weatherin}.( of tlu; two rocks,
and tiiey yield Ihe same decomposition ])r(jdiicts nanicfl under gran-
ite. On the whole, syenite appears more resistant to frcjst action
than the latter, at least it seldom breaks np into a j^raiiiilai' -A^ffra-
gate which not infrefpiently marks the oulcroj) of granite- bodies.
As to the durability of anfjrthosite, little can be said from tlu- point
of practical e.xjieriencc- since it has not been used very lon^ for
outdoor work. The rock, in ]jlace, shows bttlc change ow the
surface. At Augur lake, near Keeseville, there are vertical cliCfs
of anorthosile which have been direetjy exposed to the; weather
ever since the glacial period ; these show a bleached film not more
than one-fourth of an iixli thick coating tlu; surfaee, but no stain
or softening. This appears a favorable indication of its jjermanency
under atmos|>heric conrlitions.
The name diorite is used to denote a rock containing plagioclasc
and hornblende as essential miiieials. The plagifjclase is nearer the
albitc than the anorthite. end of tlu; series, including such varieties
as oligoclase and andesine ; the hornblende is the same !:iiifl that
accompanies syenite or granile and is usually ])leiilifnl. 'Ihe rolor,
consecjuently, is ralher dail;, with the grayish tones predoniinating.
Some diorites contain considerable bifjtite which, if it gains ascend-
ency over the hornblende, makes a mica-difjrite as flistingnisbcf! frf)m
the hornblende tyjic which is simply a diorite. The cfjinposil ion of
the fliorite is iiitermediate between that of granites on one side and
the gabbros on the (jther, and it might be expected to lind gradatifjn
toward either series, through the apju-arance of certain characteristic
minerals. The mingling of f|nart/. and alkali feldsjjar makes a
rather comnuju variation horn the ty]>e, leading to the class of
granodiorites which may be described equally well as basic granites.
The fliorites are not common rocks in this State. There are no
large areas of ly])ical massive diorite; some of the gneisses in the
Adirondacks are related to diorites in mineral comjjosition, having
perhaps originaterl frrjm such rocks, though now changcfl to the
62 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
gneissoid somewhat altered forms which are commonly termed
greenstones. The characteristic green hue of these altered types
is due to the formation of a chloritic mineral out of the hornblende
Granodiorite is represented by the great area of so-called Har-
rison diorite in Westchester county and by smaller masses in both
the Adirondacks and southeastern New York.
The physical characters of diorites are not very different from
those described under granites ; in the case of granodiorites the
resemblances are very close. They are a little darker in color,
never appearing in reddish tones, but always grayish or greenish;
average around 2.8 or 2.9 in specific gravity, corresponding to a
mean of about 180 pounds to the cubic foot; and are useful for all
purposes to which granites are put, except they are less readily
polished, owing to the presence of so much hornblende and mica.
Gabbro is composed typically of pyroxene and plagioclase, the
latter being one of the more basic varieties — labradorite or anorthite.
Unlike the rocks previously described, it usually contains more of
the iron-bearing silicates than of feldspathic minerals and hence
the color is very dark, ranging from grayish or greenish gray to
black. The pyroxene includes both orthorhombic and monoclinic
varieties which very frequently stow parfcial alteration to horn-
blende. Olivine is a common and at times an important ingredient;
its presence is denioted by a prefix to the rock named, for example
Gabbros are peculiarly subject to fluctuations in mineral com-
position through a relative gain in the proportion of one or another
of the common minerals, a variation caused by some process of
differentiation during the period of intrusion and consolidation.
By increase of the feldspar and corresponding shrinkage in the
pyroxene there results the rock already described as anorthosite.
This is really, therefore, a gabbroic type and not related directly to
syenite. The predominance of pyroxene leads to pyroxenite, in
which feldspar is very sparsely if at all represented. Olivine, with
subordinate amounts of feldspar and pyroxene, forms a peridotite.
The principal iron ore in gabbro is ilmenite which may be sufficiently
concentrated locally to form fairly pure masses of considerable
The gabbros, owing to their content of the iron-magnesia sili-
caites, are rather heavy, averaging from 2.8 to over 3 in specific
gravity. Their weight ranges from 175 to 200 pounds to the cubic
Photomicrograph of gabbro, Port Henry. Constituents are pyroxene,
feldspar and magnetite.
Photomicrograph of diabase, Fort Ann. Lath-shaped crystals of feldspar
in a groundmass of pyroxene. Enlarged 22 times.
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 63
foot. In fresh condition they are fairly hard and exceedingly
tough, but lose these qualities rapidly if decomposed by atmospheric
weathering. Their decomposition is sometimes hastened by the
presence of sulphides, which are likely to be abundant in places,
more so than in acid rocks. The characteristic alteration product of
the more basic gabbros is serpentine.
Gabbros find little employment for architectural work, owing to
their somber appearance. They are used to some extent for dec-
orative and monumental purposes under the trade name of " black
granite." Quarries in Maine, Minnesota and North Carolina have
supplied such stone, but very little has come from the large gabbro
areas of New York. The main developments in this State have
been for the supply of crushed stone for macadam and concrete, for
which purposes the fine-grained dense sorts may be considered equal
to the best trap.
The limited use of the stone for general purposes is partly due,
no doubt, to the expense of dressing it. The basic rocks seldom
show any rift or grain structure, but break with a curved fracture
without reference to direction.
DIABASE OR TRAP
Trap is a popular term for the dark, fine-grained igneous rocks
that occur in intrusive sheets and dikes. It is thus not a distinct
rock type, but may include diabase, basalt and any of the basic
intrusions which have a sheetlike form. In New York State, the
name is ecjuivalent practically to diabase, an intrusive containing
lime-soda feldspar and pyroxene as essential ingredients, with
subordinate amphibole, olivine and pyroxene. The composition
thus is very similar to that of gabbro, but the appearance of the
rock is quite characteristic, owing to the manner in which the
minerals are distributed. The feldspar forms laths or rectangular
rods that inclose the pyroxene, olivine and amphibole in their ir-
regular interspaces like a network. This gives a firmly interlocked
texture which insures a high degree of toughness and resistance to
Diabase is almost black on rock face and polished surfaces. Like
gabbros, it finds limited employment for structural stone. Its
specific gravity is about 2.9 and the weight around 180 pounds to
the cubic foot. Its fine grain promotes evenness of wear, so that
with its other qualities it is exceptionally well adapted for road
material and concrete in all cases that involve heavy duty. Some
examples make a good black granite, as shown by specimens of
64 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
the polished Palisades stone in the State Museum. Ordinarily it
has no rift or grain and hence is difficult to reduce into dimension
blocks ; in some quarries, however, the stone splits readily enough
to be converted into Belgian blocks.
The main area of diabase in this State is the Palisades intrusion,
a long north-south sill or sheet lying within shales and sandstones
of Triassic age and extending from Haverstraw to near Richmond
on Staten Island. The sill is from 300 to 800 feet thick. Its ex-
posed eastern edge with its vertical joint systems, forms the pre-
cipitous cliffs of the Palisades. This area has been a prolific
source of crushed stone which has been used in road-making and
concrete throughout the lower Hudson valley. There are countless
numbers of diabase dikes in the Adirondacks, particularly in the
northern and eastern sections, but they are mostly small, averaging
only a foot or two thick, occasionally reaching 20 or 30 feet, and
in one instance at Little Falls, nearly 100 feet.
GNEISS AND SCHIST
Gneiss and schist are general terms applied to the' metamorphic
silicate rocks whose original char'acters of texture, structure and,
not infrequently, mineral composition have been more or less com-
pletely changed under influences of compression, heat and chemical
agencies. Their chief structural peculiarity arises from a parallel
arrangement of the minerals, the light and dark components being
segregated in lines or bands which simulate the bedded structure of
sedimentary rocks. The planes of segregation, as in the case of
bedded struc'ture, mark the directions of actual or potential parting ;
the schists, particularly, have a very well-developed capacity for
splitting which resembles slaty cleavage in its perfection.
The gneisses of more massive type are' suitable for general con-
struction purposes but ordinarily do not lend themselves to deco-
rative uses on account of their lack of uniform texture and appear-
ance, both of which vary with the direction of view. Such kinds
are mainly derived from granite and other massive igneous rocks.
Under the influence of powerful compressive forces, the originals
have been squeezed and stretched, bringing the scaly and elongated
minerals into parallel alignment and crushing the rest into granular
aggregates. The change may be not altogether a physical one, but
is generally accompanied by the development of new minerals and
more or less recrystallization of the mass. If the massive rocks
originally had a coarse or porphyritic appearance, very often there
will remain shattered but still distinct crystal aggregates of the
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 65
porphyritic mineral in the midst of the finer material. This is
particularly observed in the metamorphic products of feldspathic
rocks like granite and syenite which often show lenticular remnants
of the original porphyritic feldspars and are known as " augen "
Gneisses have all the variations in composition that are found
in the igneous rocks. Those of granitic composition are naturally
the most important for quarry purposes. Many of the granite
masses show gneissic phases on their borders, as is the case also of
the syenites, gabbros etc., the parallel lamination arising from
differential compression during consolidation or later. In some
places gneisses are formed by the injection of igneous material into
a hornblende or mica schist that is itself a modified sediment.
There are many such occurrences in the Adirondacks in localities
where the Grenville schists have been invaded by granite ; the latter
apparently in its cooling has given ofif solutions charged with
mineral materials which penetrated into the schist for long distances
and converted it into a firm, hard gneiss. The so-called granite from
Horicon is really an injected mica schist, with porphyritic feldspars
and quartz derived from igneous sources. The Manhattan schist
and Fordham gneiss as represented in most of the quarry localities
contain a large proportion of granitic material interleaving or com-
mingled with the ingredients from sedimentary sources, and it is
by reason of this injection that they are serviceable quarry stones.
The mineral serpentine is formed almost entirely by alteration
of other ferro-magnesian silicates, chiefly pyroxene and olivine. The
latter minerals, as has been noted already, are important constitu-
ents of the basic igneous rocks of the gabbro family, some members
of which are made up wholly of them. Their alteration, which
is a process of hydration largely, with the separation of more or
less lime as calcite and of some of the iron as iron oxides, takes
place readily under atmospheric weathering and leads to the for-
mation of extensive bodies of rock serpentine that has some use
for architectural and decorative purposes.
There are several areas of serpentine in southeastern New York,
of which the largest is on Staten Island, covering all the higher
central part of that island. Other bodies are found on Manhattan
island (now concealed), at New Rochelle and Rye. The rock in
these places has little economic importance, owing to its badly
66 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
jointed and fractured condition. Serpentine is one of the softer
minerals and on that account the rock can not be apphed to general
constructional purposes, but finds a market chiefly as an ornamental
material by reason of its lustrous green color and of the striking
pattern produced by the blotches or veinings of iron ores and
Besides this kind of serpentine, mention may be made of serpen-
tinous marbles or ophicalcites which are derived from impure
sedimentary limestones. In the metamorphism of the limestones,
pyroxene is formed which later changes over to serpentine, giving
a mottled or spotted effect of green on a white body of calcite.
Such serpentinous marbles occur in the eastern Adirondacks and
have been used to a limited extent for monumental and interior
Pegmatite is really a member of the granite series, being a coarse-
grained intrusive composed of feldspar, quartz and mica. It has
little value for structural purposes which granite serves, and in its
mode of occurrence and origin differs somewhat from the ordinary
representatives of that series. It is found in dikes with fairly
regular tabular form, but also occurs in irregular winding veins
and occasionally in masses that show a lenticular or rounded out-
crop like bosses of the finer grained igneous rocks. The latter
type may attain very large proportions, that is a thousand feet or
more in diameter, while the dikes seldom exceed 40 or 50 feet in
thickness and for the most part are under 10 feet.
The mineralogy of pegmatites is of much interest on account of
the variety and fine crystallizations of the species that accompany
them. The important species, however, are the same as those
described as essential constituents of granite. The quartz is com-
monly white, gray or pink, occurring in crystals or massive, and
ranging from a few inches to several feet in diameter. It is also
more or less intergrown with the feldspar, sometimes in a peculiar
way which is known as " graphic granite." The feldspar includes
the alkali varieties like microcline, orthoclase and albite, with
usually more or less of lime-soda feldspar of oligoclase or andesine
nature. Individual crystals sometimes measure 5 or 6 feet long.
Both the quartz and feldspar are valuable where they can be ob-
tained in condition of fair purity and uncontaminated by iron ; their
principal use is in pottery, but they serve many other purposes.
The mica of pegmatite belongs to both the lighter iron-free sorts
like muscovite and phlogopite and the dark variety biotite ; it builds
QUARRY MATERIALS OP NEW YORK d'J
sheets and thicker plates that attain a size up to 2 or 3 feet across.
Its occurrence in pegmatite is the source of commercial mica, but
the mineral has to be free of inclusions and checks to be of much
value, which is very rarely the case in any of the Adirondack
In addition to quartz, feldspar and mica, there are a great many
minerals that occur in more or less abundance in the local pegma-
tites. Some of the commoner ones are tourmaline, beryl, garnet,
amphibole, magnetite, pyrite, apatite, zircon, titanite, lepidolite,
chlorite, epidote and calcite ; of rare occurrence are monazite, xeno-
time, autunite, dumortierite, molybdenite and allanite. The crys-
tals of tourmaline and beryl may weigh many pounds.
Pegmatites are quite variable in their composition, changing
much more rapidly in that respect than granite. The proportions
of feldspar and quartz fluctuate through all possible ranges, as may
be seen in almost any of the larger bodies like those at Crown
Point and Bedford, for exampk. A mass of practically solid f eld^
spar in one place gives way in a short distance to one of quartz or
to a mixture of the two minerals. These fluctuations take place
horizontally and vertically and often are the cause of much incon-
venience if they do not seriously afifect the progress of quarrying,
especially where it is aimed to secure a uniformity of products.
In many quarries this feature seems to have been ignored at first,
and the results of work consequently have not corresponded to
expectations. There is need of careful investigation to determine
the character and uniformity of the materials in each locality which
should precede actual development. Bosses and large dikes of
pegmatite extend downward into the earth for indefinite distances,
usually much farther than they can be followed in open quarry
operations. The lenses and veins are much less persistent, often
pinching out abruptly.
Pegmatite is associated with many of the granite areas in the
Adirondacks and southeastern New York. In most of the granite
quarries small irregular masses of the material are encountered, in
some with such frequency as to impair the value of the product. In
the larger occurrences the pegmatite may be left as a wall in the
quarry. The irregular bodies which grade over into the granites
are apparently not intrusive in the latter, but have resulted from
crystallization of the magma in place, the coarse texture being due
to the local presence of abundant water vapor and other mineraliz-
ing agencies. The pegmatite is probably the last part of the mass
to crystallize and represents the residue of magmatic material with
NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
an excess of the solvents or mineralizers squeezed out by the con-
solidation of the surrounding granite.
The larger bodies in the form of dikes or bosses represent real
intrusions of much later age than the country rock. They occur in
any kind of country rock, be it gneiss, schist or limestone. Con-
sequently they are sharply deHmited on the borders, without any
gradation as is observed in the segregated bodies. They are off-
shoots of some granite mass which may be quite distant or not at all
in evidence at the surface. All through the western Adirondacks,
but particularly in St Lawrence county, dikes, veins and bosses of
pegmatite occur intersecting the older gneisses, and schists, witt
only here and there a body of granite in evidence that may be
regarded as a source of the materials. It is very probable that much
of this region is underlain by a great granite bathylith of which th(
exposed granites and pegmatites are offshoots into the overlying
rocks. The larger pegmatite bodies are often conspicuous feature;
in the topography, as they are very resistant to erosion and tenc
to form knobs and ridges. They are consequently most frequently
encountered on the higher ground and when uncovered may b«
visible for long distances, on account of their white color.
Fig. 6 Map of the St Lawrence river granite quarries. I, Picton island; 2, Forsythe; 3, Kelly; 4, Webster quarries.
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 69
FIELD OCCURRENCE OF THE. GRANITES, GNEISSES,
THE ST LAWRENCE RIVER GRANITES
Granite and granitic gneiss are exposed on several of the larger
islands in the St Lawrence river, particularly in the stretch from
Clayton to Alexandria Bay and over a considerable area on the
adjacent mainland. They are outlying representatives of the
Adirondack crystallines, though separated from the main area of
the latter by an interval in which the surface formations consist
mainly of undisturbed Paleozoic sediments. These rocks un-
doubtedly covered the whole region at one time, but have been
eroded away here and there so as to expose the underlying Pre-
cambric basement. In contrast with the Adirondacks, the Pre-
cambric area along the St Lawrence presents very little relief, for
the most part being less than 100 feet above the river and much
of it is quite flat. Suitable quarry sites are therefore not so com-
mon in this section as in the interior highland where rocks of
similar or identical character occur, but the region is favored by
the facilities for water transportation which give access to the im-
portant markets on the St Lawrence and Great Lakes at very low
The most valuable quarry material in this section is the red
granite of Grindstone, Picton and Wellesley islands, a product with
which the name Thousand Island granite is popularly associated.
It has had a fairly large sale for building and monumental purposes,
taking rank with the best of the red granites from American
quarries. In general it is a bright red, coarsely textured rock; but
medium-grained and fine-grained varities also occur. It has a
thoroughly massive appearance, and the grain is very uniform so
far as relates to the product of a single quarry.
The present exposures of this granite have been traced on the
geological maps prepared by Gushing and others for the report
on the " Geology of the Thousand Islands Region." ^ The granite
extends from the central part of Wellesley island, where it is in
contact with the older granitic gneiss series, to the western limits
of that island, and reappears on Grindstone, of which it constitutes
1 N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 145, 1910. The red granite lies mainly within
the Grindstone quadrangle.
70 NfiW YORK STATE MUSfiUM
the larger part. It also outcrops on the smaller islands between
Wellesley and Grindstone, including Murray, Picton, and Bkiff
GRINDSTONE ISLAND GRANITE AREA
Grindstone is an irregular, deeply indented island, about 5 miles
long and 2 miles wide, lying nearly midway in the river, directly
opposite Clayton. It is included in the Grindstone quadrangle of
the United States Geological Survey. The island is low and thinly
soiled, though it affords some good grazing and agricultural land.
The principal settlement is Thurso on the north shore and near the
As shown on the geological map by Gushing and Smyth, the red
granite occupies all the eastern and northern part of the island, but
on the south and west gives way to the older Grenville and Lauren-
tian gneiss series, into which, however, it sends offshoots that in
places are of considerable magnitude. It is also not unmixed with
these rocks, as inclusions of the Grenville schist and quartzite and
of the lighter Laurentian granite are found within the interior of
the red granite. These inclusions appear, however, to be arranged
in definite belts and are not so generally distributed as to give
trouble in quarry operations, if a little care is exercised in the
selection of a site. Aside from these larger inclusions the granite
shows a fair degree of uniformity. Occasional " knots " of darker
color are noticeable in some of the quarries and seem to be in the
nature of segregations.
The principal quarry workings are in the vicinity of Thurso. For
the last few years none of the quarries have been actively operated,
though some stone is taken out occasionally on orders for building
and monumental work. The period of greatest activity dates back
fully fifteen years. In Smock's report' of 1888 it is stated that
quarries had been opened at more than twenty different places on
the island and that three large quarries were then in operation.
General character and composition. The Grindstone Island
granite usually has a coarse texture which is imparted by the abund-
ant large feldspar individuals. It has, nevertheless, excellent polish-
ing qualities, giving a fine and lustrous surface. The color is bright
red for the polished surfaces but lighter on the rock face and very
light on hammered work. The stone is therefore suitable for
buildings in which a medium color effect is desired and at the same
time is well adapted for monumental or interior work.
The mineral composition of the granite is somewhat variable
Pink granite. Picton Island, St. Lawrence river
»t vi^" ^-'
*!• » -vi^J*.
Red granite. Picton Island, St. Lawrence river
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 7I
according to locality, but in general it may be said that red feldspar
constitutes about three- fourths of the whole, while quartz and
biotite are next in abundance. The feldspar consists of microcline,
microperthite, and oligoclase and shows some alteration. The
quartz has a bluish or opaque white color. Along with the biotite
there is some chlorite, evidently from alteration, and hornblende.
The minor ingredients include magnetite, titanite, pyrite, zircon and
apatite. The feldspar shows incipient decay, but is not materially
The following chemical analysis is taken from Cushing's
" Geology of the Thousand Islands Region." It is based on a
sample from a quarry described as i mile southeast of Grindstone,
perhaps referring to the Gordon quarry. The analysis is by E. W.
Fe203 2 . 42
MgO 1. 18
CaO 2. IS
NasO ;.. 3-o8
MnO ; 23
Laboratory tests. Acording to Smock, a representative specimen
of the granite showed a specific gravity of 2.713, equivalent to a
weight of 169 pounds to the cubic foot. The absorption was 1.55
per cent of water. When subjected to a dilute solution of sulphuric
acid, the loss was .13 per cent. No apparent change was caused
by freezing and thawing, but exposure to a temperature of 1200°-
1400° F. caused vitrification, destruction of color and impaired the
A more elaborate test of the fire-resisting qualities of the granite
was carried out by Mr W. E. McCourt. Two cubes tested to 550°
C. with slow cooling remained unchanged, but one developed a few
72 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
small cracks when rapidly cooled from that temperature. Cracks
appeared in the cubes when heated to 850°, and under the flame and
water test the granite was badly broken as was the case with all
the cubes of igneous rocks that were subjected to that test.
The absorption of 1.55 per cent as given by Smock seems to be
erroneous, perhaps due to the shifting of the decimal point. So
large a ratio is seldom found in any granite. Physical tests of the
granites by the writer gave the following values : specific gravity
2.71; ratio of absorption .171 per cent; pore space .462 per cent.
In his " Building and Ornamental Stones of Canada," Parks in-
cludes the following data for the Kingston granite which apparently
is almost identical in composition with the Grindstone granite;
specific gravity 2.68; ratio of absorption .119 per cent; pore space
.319 per cent; crushing strength 30,421 pounds a square inch.
Most of the stone shipped from the island in recent years has
come from the Kelly quarry. This is also known as the Chicago
Granite Company's quarry. It was opened about 1883 and worked
by that company for several years. The present owner is H. B.
Kelly of Clayton. The quarry lies on the southern and western
slopes of a hill which fronts the little bay reaching southward
toward Thurso. It is opened in two benches with a total height
of about 75 feet and a length of over 200 feet. The rock has a
rather coarse grain and is thoroughly massive. The only defect is
the presence of rounded inclusions, or knots, of darker, finer crys-
talline rock which cause some waste in the quarrying of dimension
stone. The jointing is not particularly well defined or regular.
The principal courses are N. 75° E. and north-south, with less
plainly marked series N. 35° E. and N". 50° W. The joints are
widely spaced and permit the quarrying of blocks of large size.
Sheeting is absent though there is an imperfect division along a
plane which dips 15° or so to the north.
The present equipment includes one 40-foot derrick. The ship-
ping dock is a few hundred feet north of the quarry and connected
by a tramway. The quarry lands compose about 5 acres.
Paving blocks were the principal product made by the Chicago
Granite Company. They were shipped chiefly to cities on the
Great Lakes. Under the present ownership, monumental and build-
ing stock are quarried on a small scale. Several buildings along
the St Lawrence have been constructed of this granite.
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 73
The Forsythe Granite and Marble Company of Montreal operated
at one time a quarry just north of Thurtso and across the bay from
the Kelly quarry. The shore on the west side of the bay rises
abruptly 50 feet or more above the water, admitting of a good
face directly at the shore line. The quarries extend north and south
for about 200 feet. The rock is a little darker on the average than
the granite of the Kelly quarry, but otherwise is very similiar.
The joints are even more widely spaced and indefinite. The more
persistent courses are N. 45° W. and N. 40° E. The grain runs
parallel with the latter. Blocks can be obtained of size limited only
by the means of handling. The presence of inclusions of darker
color is the principal defect. There is a little pyrite noticeable in
some of the rock, but it is too small in amount to exert any detri-
mental effect in the durability or color of the stone. This is ap-
parent in the freshness of the rock at the surface.
The granite at this quarry shows two varieties of texture, the one
being characterized by coarse feldspar crystals of from 10 to 15
mm diameter and the other by medium-sized crystals of approx-
imately 5 mm diameter. The former found employment for monu-
mental and building stone and the latter for paving blocks.
The quarry is probably the same as that described by Smock under
the name of the Thousand Island Granite Company, and active at
the time of his report. The quarry was opened about 1880. The
product in the early years was mostly paving blocks and was
shipped to western cities. Building and monumental stone were also
shipped in quantity to Montreal.
The Forsythe Granite and Marble Company, the last to operate
the quarry, ceased work over ten years ago. There is no equip-
ment of value remaining on the property. The shipping dock is
directly at the quarry. The quarry is now owned by Miss Jennie
Forsythe of Montreal.
A sample of the polished granite from this locality is shown in
the large columns that adorn the Senate Chamber of the New York
State Capitol at Albany. These are said to have been quarried
from near the surface.
Other quarries near Thurso
On the farm of W. L. Webster about one-half of a mile east of
Thurso is a ledge of red granite, once worked by White and O'Brien.
This quarry face is about 200 feet long and 20 feet high. The joint
courses are well defined and run N. 60° E. and N. 30° W. There
74 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
is a fairly developed sheeting which dips 15° S. or nearly parallel to
the slope, and facilitates extraction of the blocks. This stone is a
little darker and more finely textured than at the other quarries
visited, due to the increased percentage of the biotite and horn-
The quarry formerly worked by Gordon and Turcotte lies a little
south of Thurso. It is perhaps the one described by Smock as
situated about half i a mile from the northwest side of the island, and
known as the Gordon quarry. This was then operated by the Inter-
national Granite Company of Montreal. Gordon and Turcotte
ceased work about twelve years ago.
The Potter quarry, now owned by H. B. Kelly, lies about a mile
southwest of Thurso and yields both red granite and a darker
colored rock which is perhaps related to the Adirondack syenite
but which was not seen in place. The latter stone is used for
monumental work. The quarry has not been developed to any
extent. The ledge is about 75 feet high and the quarry lands in-
clude 10 acres.
THE PICTON ISLAND AREA
The 'Picton Island Red Granite Company
The characteristic Thousand Island red granite is obtained at
present in quantity only from Picton island, which yields medium-
grained to fine-grained varieties as compared with the prevailing
coarse granite of Grindstone island. Picton island lies about 3
miles north of Clayton, between Grindstone and Wellesley islands ;
it is called Robbins island on the United States Geological Survey s.
map, though known locally by the former name. The quarries are
on the northern end of the island, where the ledges rising directly
from the shore Hne afford a face from 50 to 75 feet high, almost at
the water's edge. There is little stripping or other preparation re-
quired, and the stone is loaded directly on boats from the quarries
for shipment to river and lake ports. Rail shipments are made from
Clayton, where the company owns docks and yards close to the
The Picton Island granite is a part of the same mass which out-
crops over most of Grindstone Island and the southern end of
Wellesley island. It is a closely textured, sound stone of attractive
color, taking a lustrous polish and well suited for building and
monumental work. Two varieties, medium-grained and fine-
grained are obtained, the former having a bright red body flecked
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 75
with black, and the latter a uniform pink tint in which there is
little but the coloration of the feldspar noticeable. The pink granite
finds special favor for monumental purposes.
The company has two quarries in operation, of which the more
northerly has been mainly worked and has yielded most of the stone
of medium grain. The face here is about 300 feet long and 75 feet
high. The vertical joints are rather widely spaced and run N. 45° E.
and N. 35° W. The bed joints dip into the hill at an angle of 15° or
more, causing some difficulty in loosening the blocks. Material of
any size can be obtained. A small dressing and polishing works
have been provided for turning out finished material. The granite
had a well-marked rift and grain, so that excellent paving blocks
can be obtained from the waste, but this product yields little profit at
present owfng to the competition which has arisen from the quarries
in the south with their cheaper labor.
The more southerly quarry is in process of development. It has
a face about 150 feet long and 50 feet high with a slope which will
afford 25 feet or more additional height. The principal product is
pink granite, though there is some red, medium-grained granite
associated with it. About 10 or 15 feet of the surface rock is dis-
colored by sap and has to be stripped before marketable material
is obtained. The jointing here is irregular, with no predominant
A third quarry is situated between the others, but was not worked
at the time of inspection.
The company has a very complete equipment and can furnish
rough and cut stone in almost any size and quantity. Some of the
structures for which this stone has been used include the new por-
tion of the American Museum of Natural History in New York,
the National Bank Building in Clayton and the Maryland Museum
Building in Baltimore (polished columns). The red granite suitable
for polishing brings about $1.25 a cubic foot and the pink granite
from $2 to $3 a cubic foot.
General observations. The color effect of the red granite is
very similar to that of the Grindstone Island granite. The polished
surface is bright red. The rock face and hammered surfaces are
lighter than the polished and give a pleasing warm tone when seen
in structures. The contrast between hammered and polished work,
as exhibited in monuments, is marked.
The pink granite is considerably lighter than the red and, owing
to its fine texture, appears to be of almost uniform body. When
76 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
tooled the color is pinkish white, and letters and designs stand out
prominently from the polished surface. The stone is especially-
valuable for monuments.
Mineral and chemical composition. The Picton Island granite
is essentially a mixture of feldspar, quartz and biotite, with no
marked differences as regards composition between the red and
pink varieties. The textures are even and thoroughly massive.
The red or medium-grained variety is composed of particles aver-
aging 5 mm in diameter and the fine-grained of particles averaging
fro'm I to 2 mm. The coloration is due to the feldspar ingredlients
which contain minute inclusions of hematite, magnetite, hornblende,
garnet, muscovite, titanite, apatite and pyrite are present in S'mall
amounts. The pyrite is mostly limited to the joint surfaces and is
so sparingly distributed as to exert no appreciable effect upon the
durability and permanency of color of the granite.
The following chemical analysis by W. S. Hall of the Massa-
chusetts Institute of Technology is abstracted from a circular
issued by the Picton Island Red Granite Company :
CaO 1. 51
K2O, Na^O 8.80
H2O and loss .60
The composition is normal for granite, with the exception of
the iron which is a little higher perhaps than is usual in most
granites. This is explained by the rather abundant magnetite, in
which form the iron can exert no detrimental effect. Although
the potash and soda are not separated in the analysis, the former
probably predominates as the feldspar is mostly microcline and
orthoclase with subordinate plagioclase. Treatment with acetic
acid failed to give any reaction for carbonates.
Physical tests. According to information furnished by the com-
pany, the granite has a specific gravity of 2.653. ^ cubic foot
accordingly weighs 165.81 pounds, which is about the average for
eastern granites. The crushing strength, as determined in a cube
taken from the quarries when first opened, is 16,500 pounds a square
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 77
inch. An absorption test on a 4-inch cube dried to constant weight
and immersed in water for five days showed .023 grams of water
absorbed for each square inch of surface.
Specimens of the medium-grained and fine-grained granites
from these quarries were submitted for testing to the bureau of
research, State Department of Highways with the following results:
Absorption, pounds a cubic foot
ALEXANDRIA BAY AREA
An exposure of granite or granitic gneiss around Alexandria Bay
has been of some importance in the quarry industry of the St Law-
rence river region. It has furnished little building or monumental
stone, but is chiefly valuable for paving material and rough work.
The granite differs markedly in appearance from the granite
quarried on Grindstone and Picton islands, having usually a finer
grain, lighter color and a texture that in places is distinctly gneiss-
oid. The occurrence is described by Gushing under the name of
the Alexandria bathylith and is placed by him in the Laurentian
gneiss group, older than the characteristic massive granite of the
neighboring islands. The fine grain, as well as the gneissoid ap-
pearance which it exhibits in some places, is a secondary feature
superinduced by regional compression; occasional uncrushed rem-
nants of larger crystals (mainly feldspar) are still in evidence. The
composition is that of a typical granite, with feldspar, quartz and
mica as the principal minerals, ranking in the order given.
The granite extends for several miles north and south of Alex-
andria Bay along the river. Few ledges suitable for quarry sites
occur as the country is generally flat and the higher ground often
is mantled by Potsdam sandstone which rests in horizontal beds
upon the granite. Much of the rock, also, carries inclusions of
darker color and is seamed with quartz and pegmatite.
Quarry of J. Leopold & Company
The principal quarry in the Alexandria granite is situated about
one-half of a mile south of Alexandria Bay and belongs to J. Leo-
pold & Gompany of New York. A knob of the granite rises lod
feet or more above the river, forming the most conspicuous ele-
78 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
vation in the vicinity. The bare rock is exposed on all sides of the
knob which has a diameter in a northeast-southwest line of about
one-fourth of a mile. A little bay sets in close to its base and
forms a natural harbor accessible to river boats, which afford the
only means of shipment. The main workings are on the east side
where there is a cut 200 feet long. Smaller openings have been
made on the top and north side.
The granite is well jointed, the main courses being N. 30° W.
and N. 60° E. An indefinite sheeted structure appears in places.
The structure and situation facilitate quarry operations and the
only drawback is incident to the somewhat variable character of
the stone which unfits much of it for anything but rough work.
Two shades of granite appear in the quarries, one having a light
gray color and the other a pinkish tint. Both varieties have the
same composition and texture.
Microscopic examination. The appearance of the rock under
the microscope is that of an originally rather coarse granite which
has become finely textured through crushing and recrystallization.
The process has not effected in this instance any noticeable parallel
alignment of the minerals, but they show a compact arrangement
conducive to strength.
The mineral composition indicates a biotite-muscovite granite of
normal character. The feldspar is mainly of the alkali kind repre-
sented by microcline, microperthite and orthoclase supplemenited
by more or less lime-soda feldspar which appears to be oligoclase.
It carries quartz inclusions and has a broken corroded appearance.
Ferric oxide distributed along the fracture and cleavage planes of'
the feldspar is the coloring agent in the pink granite. The micas
have only small representation and there is little magnetite or other
Physical and chemical tests. In response to a request, Messrs
J. Leopold & Company contributed the following data relative to
physical tests of the granite which were made by the division of
tests, United States Department of Agriculture, in Washington.
The specific gravity is 2.65, corresponding to a weight of 165 pounds
a cubic foot. Three cubes approximately 3 inches on a side were
tested. Cubes nio. i and no. 3 showed a strengtth of 17,780 pounds
and 17,570 pounds respectively, for each square inch of cross sec-
tion, or 20,860 and 22,220 pounds respectively for each square inch
of bearing surface. Cube no. 2 resisted crushing to the breaking
power of the machine.
Quarry materials of new york 79
The bureau of research, State Department of Highways, in its
report for 1910 includes two tests of the Alexandria Bay granite,
as follows :
No. I No. 2
Specific gravity 2 . 64 2 . 64
Weight, pounds a cubic foot 165 165
Absorption, pounds a cubic foot .17 .11
Abrasion, French coefficient 20. 17.4
Hardness 18.5 18. S
Toughness 8. 10.
A chemical analysis of the Alexandria granite, which is given in
the Geology of the Thousand Islands Region, may be safely used in
reference to the product of this quarry. The locality of the sample
is given as one-fourth of a mile south of Alexandria Bay, thus in
close vicinity to the quarry. The analyst is E. W. Morley.
Si02 73- 10
FeaOs 1 . 04
FeO 1 . 04
CaO 1. 18
GRANITIC ROCKS IN THE WESTERN ADIRONDACKS
The western section of the Adirondack region, within the
boundaries of St Lawrence and Lewis counties, is a complex of
gneisses, schists, crystalline limestones and igneous intrusions,
affording a considerable variety of quarry materials that are but
little utilized. The only quarry developments of any importance in
fact are based on the crystalline limestones which occur in belts,
principally on the outer edge of the area. From these limestones
are obtained excellent grades of building and monumental marble,
of which the Gouverneur marble is the best example, as well as
material for lime, furnace flux and road construction. The silicate
rocks have received meager attention from an economic standpoint,
8o NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
the only development consisting of temporary and small-scale
operations to supply local needs in the way of road metal or founda-
In its topography the region is a plateau which slopes to the west
and northwest, the surface broken by ridges and hills of incon-
siderable altitude. The elevation of the interior ranges from about
1500 to 2000 feet, while the outer border where the crystalline
formations disappear beneath the Paleozoic sediments lies for the
most part between the approximate limits of 400 and 700 feet, but
is somewhat higher than that on the south. The interior is largely
wilderness and accessible only in restricted districts where one or
two branch railroads have been extended eastward from the main
lines which skirt the borders. Of these, the Carthage & Adiron-
dack Railroad belonging to the New York Central system is the
more important and runs from Carthage at the contact of the
Paleozoic strata with the Precambric complex in a direction north
of east across the central part of the highland as far as Newton
Falls near the outlet of Cranberry lake. The few small settlements
that exist in the interior are mainly dependent upon lumbering and
the summer visitor for support. There is little local demand for
building material of permanent nature.
Of the crystalline formations the gneisses and schists are most
prominent, but massive rocks occur in several rather extensive
areas. Granite, syenite and gabbro are the principal representa-
tives of the igneous rocks. They constitute dikes, stocks, and
larger irregular bodies that may be called bathyliths, all Precambric
in age though widely separated no doubt in the intervals of in-
trusion. The term " massive " is hardly applicable to their general
field appearance since they often pass by insensible gradations
from such condition into gneissoid and 'schistose phases, scarcely
distinguishable from some of the country formations which are
made up of an unresolved complex of gneisses and schists with the
more characteristic members of the sedimentary or Grenville series,
the latter including quartzose, mica and hornblende schists, amphi-
bolites, grap'hiite schists, quartzites and crystalline limestones.
The massive granites of this region have for the most part de-
cided colors, ranging from pink to dark red in the different occur-
rences, while the very light and gray shades are relatively uncom-
mon. They are generally rather coarse in grain, but finer sorts occur
as local modifications of the coarse rocks or in separate intrusions.
The predominant reddish color is imparted by the feldspar of which
the prevailing variety is microcline. Hornblende and biotite (both
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 8l
are usually present) constitute the dark ingredients most in evi-
dence, but magnetite plays a more important part in the composi-
tion than usual in such acid rocks.
These red granites are perhaps the most available resource in
the way of quarry material for general construction purposes within
the interior of the western Adirondacks. They have a very wide
distribution, with their gneissoid modifications covering a con-
siderable but as yet undetermined area. In many places they do
not show the uniformity of appearance or other qualities essential
to architectural stone, particularly where the intrusions are small
and, in the case of the larger bodies, along the contact zones which
are often marked by inclusions, segregations and pegmatitic injec-
tions. The best locations for quarries are found usually in the
central part of the larger masses.
In southern St Lawrence and northern Lewis counties occurs an
extensive and practically unbroken area of the granite which is
traversed for several miles by the Carthage & Adirondack Railroad.
This is one of the more accessible exposures in the region and is
described at some length in the following pages as the Fine-Pitcairn
granite. Smaller outcrops are so numerous that there is little object
in giving them individual mention. The section about Gouverneur
and eastward of there toward Edwards contains many isolated
knobs, and the schistose rocks in that vicinity are seamed and in-
jected by granite in a way suggestive of the existence of a great
underlying body of that rock. At Natural Dam, just west of
Gouverneur, a quarry has been recently opened in a small bosslike
intrusion for the supply of road metal. The rock is a massive
hornblende-biotite granite, but too variable in composition and
texture to be workable for architectural purposes.
The syenite intrusions are of the usual Adirondack type, char-
acterized mineralogically by the preponderance of feldspar which
is normally of greenish to grayish green color, coarsely crystallized,
and mainly the intergrowth of orthoclase and albite called microper-
thite. The feldspar constitutes up to 90 per cent of the entire mass.
The dark minerals are pyroxene, hornblende and magnetite, of
which the last named occurs rather abundantly for a rock of syen-
itic composition. Quartz is a very variable component. The pre-
vailing dark color gives way to light shades of gray when the
syenite has undergone granulation and recrystallization, and in
some places to red which lends a certain similarity of appearance
to the gneissoid granites. In such crushed phases there are always
82 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
unreduced remnants of feldspar s:attered through the fine ground-
jnass, as evidence of their derivation from an originally coarse-
The principal area of the syenite, thus far noted, lies on the
western border of the Fine-Pitcairn granite bathylith, and has been
described in some detail by C. H. Smyth, jr. There are smaller
scattered areas in other parts of the western Adirondacks. The
syenite is not well adapted for building stone on account of its
prevailing dark color; moreover its tough unyielding nature in the
mass ofifers difficulties in the way of extraction and cutting that
would make the cost rather high. Its chief application seeins to
be for crushed stone, for which purpose it is superior to the granite
and compares very favorably with the best trap. As a monumental
stone it does not appear to show nearly the density and fineness of
grain that are found in the syenites of Clinton and Essex counties.
Gabbro is not very common in this section and the occurrences,
in part at least, seem to represent a basic, pyroxenic variety of the
syenite. The few areas that have been noted up to the present
time are in remote sections. They require little 'consideration,
therefore, from an economic standpoint, though they may prove of
some value as sources of material for local highway construction.
Trap dikes are likewise of minor importance, the recorded occur-
rences being few in number and of small size.
THE FINE-PITCAIRN GRANITE AREA
In the towns of Fine and Pitcairn, southern St Lawrence county,
is an area of massive granite which, though not delimited as yet
or shown on any of the published geological maps, must rank with
the large granite exposures in the Adirondacks. By reason of its
situation and adaptability to economic 'development this granite
seems worthy of more than passing mention. So far apparently
it has not been used for any purpose and its existence came to
the writer's knowledge only through visits made several years since
to the magnetic iron ore localities in its vicinity. The occurrence
was revisited in the summer of 191 1 when the section along the
Carthage & Adirondack Railroad was examined with some care
and samples taken for further study.
In places the granite possesses qualities as to physical structure,
composition and appearance that seem to fulfil the requirements of
a good architectural stone which could be employed very generally
■i ir 'la^-iM*- " -- *
Pink granite. Pine Island, Orange county
Red granite. Grindstone, St. Lawrence river
QUAfeRV MATEiRlALS OiP i^fiW VoRK
for foundation and construction work. Some variations, notably
the coarse pink and white porphyritic phase, might find use for
monumental stone. The convenient situation in regard to railroad
facilities is an advantage not possessed by most of the localities
where granite of similar character is exposed in the Adirondacks.
The section as measured along the winding route of the railroad
extends about 8 miles in a general east and west direction. The
first exposure on the west is near railroad milestone 56, which refers
to Sacketts Harbor as the initialpoint, and the eastern border where
the granite gives way to a well-foliated gneiss may be taken ap-
proximately at milestone 64, but is not sharply defined. The distance
from Carthage, an important railroad center, is 25 miles, and from
Watertown 40 miles.
Fig. 7. Sketch map of the section along the Carthage and Adirondack
Railroad from Natural Bridge to Oswegatchie
The exposures occur on both sides of the railroad in a series of
ridges and hills that lend a rugged aspect to the topography though
they seldom rise over 200 or 300 feet above the valley bottoms.
They have no definite structural trend, in contrast with the regular
north-east-south-west alignment of the ridges and valleys underlain
by the older gneisses. The hills are more or less rounded, often
hummocky on the summits, but there is little evidence of profound
84 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
glacial erosion. The ice apparently has performed most of its work
in removing whatever weathered and disintegrated material may
have accumulated on the surface in the long interval between its
advent and the exposure of the granite to atmospheric agencies.
Since the Glacial period the rock has hardly been affected by
weathering; fresh unstained samples may be secured from the
natural ledges. Over much of the area the hill slopes have been
denuded of their former soil and drift covering, as the result of
recent forest fires exposing the surface to rapid erosion, so that the
granite nearly everywhere is well exposed.
On the western boundary the granite is in direct contact with
the great syenite intrusion of the Diana-Pitcairn area that has been
mapped and described by C. H. Smyth, jr. The contact where
crossed by the railroad lies just west of milestone 56. The syenite
here has a very basic composition, containing much magnetite and
dark silicates, with a coarse texture. It is much like gabbro in
9,ppearance. The contact of the two intrusives is not clean-cut,
sharply dividing one from the other, but over a considerable dis-
tance both granite and syenite occur in alternating sekms and patches
or as interlaced bands. In the hasty examination of this mixed
zone nothing definite could be learned as to the time relations of
the two intrusions. The granite, however, is in general the most
massive. The stretch from contact to about milestone 57 on the
western border consists of gneissoid granite with a marked parallel-
ism in the arrangement of the light and dark minerals and rather
finely granular texture. The ledges between milestones 57 and 60
reveal the granite in thoroughly massive or indistinctly gneissoid
condition and rather coarse in grain. The color is red, pink or
sometimes mottled by the appearance of white feldspar in addition
to the colored variety. One phase seen near milestone 59 shows
porphyritic red feldspar in white groundmass of feldspar and
quartz, specked with black hornblende crystals. At Jayville, a
former iron-mining locality, situated near the middle of the area,
there appears a considerable body of black hornblende gneiss which
seems to have been caught up by the granite on its way to the
surface and is possibly a part of the older Grenville series. It is
in this gneiss that the magnetite bodies are found. The next ledge
beyond Jayville consists of the normal red granite which continues
to milestone 61 where a white granular gneiss with rusty streaks
outcrops for a short distance. These are the only large inclusions
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 85
noted within the section traversed. On the eastern border between
milestones 62 and 64 the granite becomes finer in texture, evidently
the result of granulation superinduced by pressure metamorphism,
but maintains its normal composition and for the most part its
With the exception of the two large bodies of gneiss that prob-
ably represent included masses of the older Grenville rocks, the
area where traversed is quite bare of inclusions or contrasting ma-
terial of all kinds. The most common variations are produced by
segregated stringers of quartz and pegmatite, but these have a very
limited development. In general, the granite shows much uniform-
ity, the changes of texture or appearance taking place very gradu-
The ledges are intersected usually by widely spaced joints, of
which the vertical ones are in two series crossing at high angles
so as to produce heavy blocks. Dimension stone of any commercial
size could be obtained in most of the ledges.
The extent of the outcrop along the railroad, the only part where
a complete traverse has been made, indicates that the granite covers
a very large area. It extends no doubt for considerable distances
to the north and south. Exposures of red, somewhat gneissoid
granite of similar character have been noted by the writer in the
northern part of Fine township and in the Cranberry lake region.
Smyth mentions the occurrence of red hornblende gneiss in northern
Lewis county which he states shows massive phases at many places
and resembles as a whole a slightly modified hornblende granite.
This may represent the southern continuation of the area under
consideration ; at any rate it may belong to a common magmatic
Microscopic examination. A study of thin sections from sam-
ples taken at different places within the area shows the rock to
belong to the hornblende-biotite granites, with the two dark min-
erals in about equal proportions or with the hornblende pre-
dominant. They are, however, of subordinate importance to the
feldspars and quartz, and in composition the stone ranks with the
acid class in which the silica amounts to 70 per cent or more, as
is confirmed by the results of chemical analyses. The feldspar in-
gredients include microperthite and microcline which lend the red-
dish color to the mass and a variable but minor quantity of plagio-
clase, mostly oligoclase. Quartz is plentiful. In the more massive
NEW YOfeK STAtE MUSEUM
types of the granite it occurs in rather large individuals having
one or more crystal boundaries and to some extent as an inter-
growth with the feldspar. Magnetite represents the principal iron
ore, and no pyrite could be found in the sections. Apatite and
zircon are among the accessory minerals.
The sample taken from the surface reveals little weathering or
decomposition that is detrimental to the appearance and strength
of the stone. There is no sap or iron stain in any amount and
the effects of exposure to the elements are mainly noticeable in the
clouded appearance of the feldspars and the conversion of a part
of the ferromagnesian silicates into chlorite.
In regard to texture the granite shows considerable variation
from place to place, though within narrower limits it maintains a
degree of uniformity that makes possible the production of an
even grade of material. The coarse phase is thoroughly massive,
sometimes faintly gneissoid, and has a semiporphyritic appearance,
with feldspars measuring from .5 to i inch diameter in a fine ground-
mass of feldspar, quartz, hornblende and mica. Another variety has
an even granular texture, ranging from medium -to coarse. Still
other types show quite marked gneissoid and cataclastic textures
as the result of pressure metamorphism, more apparent on the edges
of the area.
Chemical analyses. The chemical composition of the granite
is fairly exhibited in the following analyses made from the samples
taken at different places along the line of the Carthage & Adirond'ack
Railroad. They reveal the essential ingredients in their respective
proportions, but do not give the less important ones like manganese,
zirconium and phosphorus which have little or no influence upon the
general character of the granite. The summary consequently falls
somewhat short in each case of the full amount. The analyses were
made by R. W. Jones, of the Museum staff
99.66 98.66 98.14
Porphyritic granite. Jayville, St Lawrence county
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 8/
Sulphur was tested for, but not found. Analysis i represents
the coarse massive granite from milestone 59. Analysis 2 is based
on the finer grained massive rock from milestone 62. No. 3 relates
to a sample taken from near the eastern edge of the area at mile-
stone 64, which shows a strong cataclastic texture.
Physical tests. The following tests of the coarse and fine sorts
of the granite from Jayville were made in the laboratories of the
State Museum. The samples were taken from the natural outcrop.
Specific gravity 2 . 70 2 . 63
Weight, pounds a cubic foot 168.5 164. i
Ratio of absorption, per cent .31 . 264
Pore space .99 .69
THE DIANA-PITCAIRN SYENITE
The syenite intrusion, previously mentioned as forming the west-
ern boundary of the red granite in southern St Lawrence county,
needs only brief description in this place. It can not be considered
to offer opportunity for the extraction of building materials on a
large scale, though the massive phases of the rock are well adapted
for highway and concrete material. The somber color which is
generally characteristic of this rock in the Adirondack exposures
is unsuited to most architectural purposes.
The syenite area is well shown on the large geological map of
the State. Its boundaries were traced by C. H. Smyth, jr, who
has also given a detailed account of its geological and petrographical
features in his paper on " Crystalline Rocks of the Western Adiron-
dack Region." ^ The intrusion extends in a northeast, southwest
direction across the townships of Diana, Lewis county, and Pitcairn,
St Lawrence county, for a distance in all of 20 miles. Its width is
usually less than 5 miles and its area may be estimated at not less
than 75 square miles. The Carthage & Adirondack Railroad, after
passing out of the red granite near milestone 56, crosses the north-
ern part of the syenite intrusion and enters the limestone belt on
the west just beyond Harrisville. The railroad again follows the
syenite for some distance in the stretch from Bonaparte lake to
Natural Bridge, near the southern end of the intrusion.
The syenite is grayish green to dark green, heavy and very tough
rock composed largely of feldspar but containing considerable
IN. Y. State Museum Report 51, v. 2, 1S99.
NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
amounts of the ferromagnesian minerals and magnetite. The
coarser, massive phase, which may be regarded as the original type,
is only occasionally observed in the field, for the whole mass seems
to have undergone more or less granulation and recrystallization
from pressure metamorphism. This circumstance indicates an
earlier period of intrusion for the syenite as compared with the red
granite of the same region, though the contact relations where
observed did not afford any definite evidence in that particular.
Microscopic examination. The feldspar is principally a microper-
thitic intergrowth of orthoclase and albite, with a little acid plagio-
clase. In many places the feldspar constitutes over 80 per cent of
the entire rock. A deep green pyroxene is usually observable in
small, irregularly bounded individuals with which a darker horn-
blende is often associated in a manner suggestive of its derivation
from the pyroxene. Quartz and magnetite are important accessory
minerals, the former being particularly abundant in the more
foliated varieties. Zircon and titanite also occur and the presence
of a little pyrite may usually be observed.
Fig. 8. Microscopic appearance of syenite from near Harrisville. Shows
groundmass of crushed feldspar, with larger fragments of the original crystals,
also a little pyroxene and magnetite
The syenite often has a porphyritic appearance as the result of
crushing which has reduced all but a small remnant of feldspar to
a fine, granular aggregate. The texture is seldom perfectly mas-
Chemical analysis. The chemical character of the syenite is
illustrated by the following analyses. No. i is of a sample taken
from the eastern contact near milestone 56 on the Carthage &
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 89
Adirondack Railroad (R. W. Jones, analyst). No. 2 is quoted from
Sulphur is not shown, though present in small amount.
Physical tests. A sample of the syenite from milestone 55
Carthage & Adirondack Railroad, was tested in the laboratories
of the State Department of Highways : Specific gravity, 2.705 ;
weight, pounds a cubic foot, 169; absorption, pound's a cubic foot,
.07; hardness, 18. i, toughness, 15. Tests by the writer showed
ratio of absorption .148 per cent, pore space .402 per cent.
PARISHVILLE RED GRANITE
A monumental and structural granite has been quarried at Parish-
ville in eastern St Lawrence county. It has a dark red fine-grained
body in which appear curved and branching veinlets of bright red
colors and somewhat coarser grain, but of the same mineral compc-
sitions as the rest. The veining is not sharply defined but shades
off on the borders and in places develops into round or irregular
nuclear patches which give the effect of clouds of lighter color.
The appearance of polished surfaces is attractive as it is quite rare
among stones of this class. The variation in grain is not the result
of pegmatitic injection, but of different conditions of crystallization
during a period of resoftening of the rock. The granite belong.? to
the Adirondacks granite gneisses and is composed of feldspar,
biotite and quartz, the last in rather small amount, with some horn-
blende, magnetite and zircon and a little chlorite.
Crushing tests on the granite made at the Clarkson School of
Technology at Potsdam showed an ultimate resistance of 20,000
90 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
pounds to the square inch. The chemical composition, as determined
by L. K. Russell is as follows :
CaO 1. 31
NasO, K2O 10.89
The quarry is owned by the St Regis Red Veined Granite Co.,
and the output thus far has been mainly monumental stock.
GRANITIC ROCKS IN THE EASTERN ADIRONDACKS
The eastern Adirondack region, or so much of the highland as
is included in the Lake Champlain drainage area convenient to
rail and water transportation, is made up largely of igneous rocks
belonging to the class of anorthosite, gabbro, syenite and granite.
Their intrusion took place in Precambric time before the final
stages of uplift and metamorphism that profoundly modified the
region during that period had been accomplished. Laminated gneis-
soid characters are very common; in fact there are comparatively
few localities where the igneous rocks show unchanged, massive
structure. The existence of unreduced or slightly modified residuals
affords a basis for quarry operations in connection with building
and monumental stone of the best quality, while there is an un-
limited supply of material suited to many purposes for which abso-
lute uniformity of texture or an attractive appearance is not es-
Rocks of the anorthosite class are most widespread in this section
of the Adirondacks. They have a very simple mineral composition,
consisting almost wholly of basic plagioclase feldspar, usually labra-
dorite and in their unaltered phase are characterized by very dark
colors. The anorthosites spread over most of Essex county as a
single, practically unbroken, area that embraces all the more prom-
inent Adirondack peaks within its borders. They extend in force
westward into Franklin county, but have little representation in
Clinton county, the southern border of which is nearly coincident
with the northern limits of the main area. An outlying intrusion
of small compass occurs, however, in Beekmantown and Altona
townships of Clinton county about 30 miles north of the county
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 9I
In "their typical development the anorthosites are too coarse in
texture and too dark in color to find favor as building materials.
Much of the interior part of the area is made up of this very coarse
type. Along the borders they are usually finely textured owing to
secondary crushing, and their color then becomes lighter if not
influenced by an abnormal proportion of iron-bearing minerals.
Some variations of this border phase present a uniform, even
granular appearance, closely resembling in mass a true granite with
which the anorthosite compares favorably as regards durability and
Few quarries have been opened in the anorthosite and these are
situated in the northeastern part which is most accessible to the
lake. Old quarry sites exist on Splitrock mountain between West-
port and Essex village and near Keeseville. Some work has been
done, also, on the small outlier in Beekmantown and Altona town-
ships, Clinton county. More recently attention has been given to
the locality near Ausable Forks, where there is an area underlain
by uniform light-colored anorthosite.
The syenites and granites of this section are found in smaller in-
trusions in the midst of gneisses which surround the anorthosite.
Both classes show a tendency toward laminated structures and on
that account have limited quarry possibilities. The syenite is dark
green, while the granite is mostly a red variety. A local develop-
ment of massive syenite that occurs at Ausable Forks on the border
of the anorthosite, has recently come into prominence as a source
of monumental stone. The red granite has been quarried only to
a small extent.
The gabbros have little importance economically except as possible
sources of supply of road metal for which the massive types would
appear to be excellently adapted by reason of their usually tough,
firm nature. They form small intrusive knobs in the gneisses and
also are found quite commonly in the anorthosite area.
In this connection mention may be made of the diabase dikes
which occur all over the region, and are particularly abundant in
southern Clinton county. Like the other igneous rocks that have
been mentioned they are of Precambric age, though they. show no
effects of pressure metamorphism and must have been intruded in
very late Precambric time. They seldom attain a workable size,
the average thickness being not more than 10 or 15 feet. For
road-making they offer the best material to be had anywhere, but
so far no very accessible dikes of large size have been found.
NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
AUSABLE FORKS SYENITE AREA
The vicinity of Ausable Forks, about 15 miles west of Lake
Champlain and 24 miles by rail southwest of Plattsburg, presents
many advantages for quarry operations in connection with both
anorthosite and syenite. For several years past a considerable quan-
tity of monumental stone has been shipped from this section and
recently additional developments with a view to the extraction of
building stone in a large way, as well as monumental stock, have
The main anorthosite intrusion of the central Adirondacks ex-
tends from the south to within a short distance of the confluence of
the east and west branches of the Ausable river, where the village is
^_l I— I I— j I— I [— I I
M I LE S
Fig. 9 Map of the quarry section about Ausable Forks. i-S are quarries
in green syenite; 6 is anorthosite quarry
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 93
situated. The rock outcrops in a series of low hills and ridges
which are mostly bare of soil and afford natural quarry sites. It
is of medium to light gray color as seen in exposures, or in rough
dressed surfaces, about the equivalent of a gray granite, for which
it serves well as a general building material. The anorthosite be-
longs, of course, to the border phase of the intrusion, characterized
by a granulated feldspar ground mass with rather more than the
usual percentage of dark silicates.
The syenite which is quarried principally for monumental pur-
poses occupies an area between the anorthosite on the south and
the red gneisses that extend over most of the county immediately
north of the Ausable river. It outcrops in the first ridges just
north of the village, and also on the west side of Ragged mountain
on the south bank and in the triangle formed by the two forks of
the Ausable. The different exposures belong very likely to a single
boss of the syenite which has forced itself up along the gneiss-
anorthosite contact. The rock is of medium grain, massive. In
color it varies from dark to very dark green as seen on rock face
and polished surfaces, but grayish green on hammered work. Its
perfect polishing qualities and ability to take the finest tracing which
it shows in strong relief, combine to make it one of the most attrac-
tive monumental stones on the market.
The Moore quarry
The syenite quarries are located on both sides of the river. Those
on the north side are situated along the ridge that lies a little
distance from the town and north of the railroad. The Moore
quarry is near the base of the ridge which rises steeply at first so
as to afford a good working face of lOO feet or more, and then
more graidually to the summit which is over 400 feet above the
railroad. There is practically no soil covering on the rock and
weathering has produced no more than a slightly bleached layer,
which at a few inches depth passes into the normal rock. No sap
or stain is apparent. The rock is broken into large blocks by two
vertical joint courses running N. 40° E. and N. 50° W. An in-
clined course cuts across these in a direction N. 20° W. and dips
45° northeast, in conformity with the surface slope, giving the
effect of a sheeted structure. The rock is said to split easiest in a
direction parallel to the inclined joint systems. Several trap dikes
from 10 inches to 2 feet thick intersect the ledge in a northeast-
southwest direction. They have exerted little contact effect upon
the syenite and in some respects are an advantage to the quarry
94 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
work, as they form a natural back from which the rock may be
The syenite is medium to fine in texture, the feldspar which
composes the greater part of the mass ranging from 5 mm down to
2 mm in diameter. The color in the quarry is bright green to
yellowish green, and of polished surfaces a lustrous dark green
that appears nearly black when seen from a distance. The stone
from this quarry is sold under the name of " Adirondack green
The quarry was first opened by Moore Brothers of Barre, Vt.
It was later taken over by the Adirondack Granite Co., a consolida-
tion of several quarry properties in the vicinity of Ausable Forks.
Recently it has been worked under lease by J. H. Moore.
Microscopic examination. The composition of the syenite is
about 75 per cent of feldspar and 25 per cent of other ingredients,
including pyroxene, quartz, magnetite and zircon. The feldspar
consists of microcline, microperthite and oligoclase, all in stout
prisms with interlocking borders. The microperthite is very abun-
dant and affords beautiful examples of this peculiar intergrowth,
the alternating bands of microcline and albite being unusually large.
The pyroxene has an emerald green color and is strongly pleochroic.
Zircon is quite abundant. There is very little evidence of altera-
tion among the minerals, but some secondary limonite has been
deposited along the sutures and pores, probably filtering in from
the surface. The feldspar and quartz are crossed by microscopic
fractures in the direction of the grain similar to those found in
granites, but smaller in dimensions and less abundant. No sulphides
were observed in the sections.
Physical tests. The syenite from this quarry has a specific
gravity of 2.71, or a weight of 169 pounds to the cubic foot. The
crushing strength is 14,734 pounds a square inch. The ratio of
absorption is .155 per cent or .26 pounds to the cubic foot.
Ausable Granite Company's quarry
The first syenite in the Ausable Forks area was quarried from
the ridge a little east of the Moore quarry by the Ausable Granite
Company, later consolidated with the Adirondack company. The
quarry has not been operated for the last few years, as the other
localities offer better advantages for extracting stone of uniform
grade. The general character of the rock, however, is very similar
to the material in the Moore quarry. The quarry supplied both
monumental and building stock in limited quantity.
QUARRY MATERIALS OP NEW YORK 95
The Charles Clements quarry
The Charles Clements quarry is situated south of the Ausable on
the shoulder of Ragged mountain, overlooking the village of Ausable
Forks. It yields a fine-grained syenite of darker color than that
from north of the river, though it is no doubt a part of the same
intrusion. The quarry is opened as a pit and thus is worked to
some disadvantage, though the depth is not sufficient as yet to
complicate the operations. The quarry belongs to Charles Clements,
a dealer in monumental stone, of Boston, v^ho has shipped the
product in the rough.
Microscopically, the syenite in the area south of the river differs
considerably from the type described under the Moore quarry. The
syenite here is evidently a border phase of the intrusive mass,
characterized by fine grain, and a larger percentage of the dark
constituents, with reaction minerals like garnet. Owing to its fine
texture, it splits with a smooth or conchoidal fracture like a trap.
Along with the increase of the ferromagnesian minerals there is a
gain also in lime-soda feldspar which shares importance with the
alkali varieties. It is a basic phase of the syenite which in other
places in the Adirondacks may be observed to grade over into a
The texture of the rock is even-grained, massive, showing no
trace of the gneissoid arrangement that often accompanies the basic
gradations. The jointing is at wide intervals and almost any size
of block can be quarried. There is no well-developed sheet struc-
ture, but a series of unequally spaced bed joints is present.
The Carnes quarries
The Carnes quarries, owned by F. G. Carnes of West Chazy, are
situated about one-half of a mile south of Ausable Forks on the
western continuation of the Ragged mountain exposure. They are
not as yet developed for supplying large quantities of stock, but have
been opened sufficiently to prove that there is material of good
quality. One quarry, called the Keystone, lies at the base of the
mountain, between the highway and the river. It yields a green
syenite of lighter shade than that from higher up the mountain.
The quarry lands in this location cover 35 acres.
On the opposite side of the East branch the syenite appears again
along the slopes of a low ridge that is partly covered with terraced
sand deposits. The Emerald quarry is situated in this exposure.
The ledge affords a face from 15 to 25 feet high and about 400 feet
long. There is in all 300 acres in the property. The syenite is
g6 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
intersected by widely spaced block joints. It is a dark green rock
of fine texture. It takes an excellent polish and is well suited for
Under the microscope the syenite from the latter quarry presents
some peculiarities not noted in the other occurrences. The chief
feature is connected with the ferromagnesian minerals which con-
sist mainly of a dark hornblende in the place of the usual green
diopside, and a smaller proportion of an orthorhombic pyroxene
that corresponds to hypersthene. Quartz is more abundant than
usual for syenite, occurring in small grains on the borders and in
the interior of the feldspars. The latter comprise microperthite,
microcline and oligoclase. The accessory constituents include
magnetite, zircon, apatite and titanite. The secondary products of
alteration are mostly chlorite, which is observed on the borders of
the hornblend'e, and limonite. The texture is even-granular massive.
AUSABLE FORKS ANORTHOSITE AREA
In the last few years some attention has been given to the quarry-
ing of anorthosite for building and monumental stone in the vicinity
of Ausable Forks. The anorthosite outcrops on the road from
Ausable Forks to Jay, beginning just south of the Stickney bridge
along the ridges that limit the valley on either side.
The anorthosite belongs to the granulated type in which the
originally coarse feldspar crystals are only now and then evidenced
by unmashed individuals which in their surroundings of fine-grained
material appear like the phenocrysts in a porphyry. The color is
gray of light or medium tone while the uncrushed feldspars have
a dark greenish or bluish appearance and an iridescent play of
color. Some types contain much pyroxene, which is black in the
hand specimen ; the stone then is similar in appearance to a medium-
grained or coarse-grained granite.
Most of the stone has been shipped from a quarry situated one-
half of a mile southeast of the Stickney bridge, formerly worked
by the Adirondack Granite Co. It is a small opening with a
face about 20 feet high, but the ledge extends fully 500 feet with a
face 50 feet high. The stone from this quarry was used in the
two first stories of the Locomotive Engineers Building in Cleveland,
Ohio, and in the Adirondack National Bank Building at Saranac
The rock is traversed at rather wide intervals by two sets of
vertical joints running N. 50° W. and N. 35° E. respectively. There
is a less marked division in a plane inclined about 30° from the
Gray granite ( Anorthosite). Ausable Forks
Green syenite. Ausable Forks
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 97
horizontal. It possesses a marked rift and grain structure which
follows the direction of the vertical joint systems and which has
already been described in the earlier discussion of that structure.
Blocks of any merchantable size can be quarried : one containing
about 6000 cubic feet was exposed in the course of operations in
The same character of rock extends eastward from this opening
on to the Loren Williams place, between the North Jay and Stickney
Bridge roads, where there is a very extensive exposure and the
outcrop is found on the sides and top of the knob next south of
the quarry opening, but the rock here has a coarser texture with a
larger proportion of uncrushed feldspar.
Microscopic examination. Thin sections of the anorthosite ex-
amined under the microscope reveal its simple mineral character.
It is mainly feldspar of one kind, a basic plagioclase corresponding
to labradorite in optical properties. The individuals have been
broken down to small grains 2 or 3 mm in diameter, which are
interlocked, however, as thoroughly as the components of any
granite. Effects of compression are also evidenced by strain
shadows in the larger residual crystals. The feldspar shows some
alteration to mica around the borders, but otherwise is fresh. The
dark constituents are hornblende and pyroxene, frequently inter-
grown and showing irregular boundaries. There is a little magnetite
or ilmenite in fine particles, but no pyrite.
Physical tests. The results of physical tests indicate that the
anorthosite meets all practical requirements for a building stone.
The crushing strength measured on a tube tooled down but not
polished was 14,735 pounds a square inch, or equal to that of an
average granite. The specific gravity is 2.75, or a little heavier than
granite, corresponding to a weight of 172 pounds to the cubic foot.
The absorption is low, with a ratio of .127 per cent. The hardness,
according to the tests of the bureau of research. State Department
of Highways, is 17.6 and the toughness 6. Another sample of
anorthosite from Ausable Forks, locality unspecified, showed the
following results: specific gravity 2.74; abrasion (French coeffi-
cient) 10.5; hardness 18.7; toughness 10.
Red granite, Ausable Forks
An outcrop of granite on the Clintonville road 2 miles east of
Ausable Forks has afforded a limited quantity of monumental
stone of which some has been used locally and the rest shipped to
pS i^EW Yoktc stAT:^ Museum
dealers. The rock is an interesting type, as it belongs to the true
granites, being composed of feldspar and quartz in normal pro-
portions, but on the other hand contains no dark silicates of the
mica, amphibole or pyroxene families. In the place of such min-
erals, however, it carries a large amount of magnetite which ordin-
arily is a very minor consitituent O'f granite. This mineral con-
stitutes about 15 per cent of the entire rock, its relative abundance
more than compensating for the absence of iron-magnesia silicates
in effect upon the specific gravity. The latter is 2.8 which cor-
responds to a weight of 175 pounds to the cubic foot, which is very
high for granite. The color is purplish brown to dark red. The
grain is regular and fine, the average diameter of the quartz and
feldspar grains being under 2 mm. The appearance of the polished
surfaces is attractive.
The quarry is a small opening with a face of about 12 feet. It
is on property owned by Mrs Beane of Ausable Forks.
THE KEESEVILLE ANORTHOSITE AREA
The anorthosite exposures in the vicinity of Keeseville near Lake
Champlain, have been the source of fairly large quantities of build-
ing and monumental material. The rock is mostly the light, granu-
lated variety that characterizes the peripheral zone of the great
Adirondack mass. The stone has been sold under the name of
Prospect Hill quarries
The Prospect Hill quarries are situated on the northern and
western slopes of that prominence, a rounded knob 300 feet or more
high, lying just south of Keeseville. The northerly quarries once
belonged to the Ausable Granite Co., and, are mentioned by Smock
as in active operation at the time of his investigation in the period
1880-90. The company also operated a dressing and monumental
works at Keeseville.
The stone of these quarries is medium to coarse in texture, de-
pending on the relative proportion of the granulated and residual
uncrushed feldspar, and has a gray color. The rock surfaces show
glacial striations and polishing, but are almost unaffected by weather-
Smock describes two cjuarries as operative, a lower one to the
north producing a coarse variety, and an upper quarry about 20
rods south of the former and higher up the hill, each equipped with
a single derrick. The quarrying of dimension stone must have been
fi" 4 y*^f-
Gray granite (Anorthosite). Keeseville
Green granite (Anorthosite;. Keeseville
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 99
expensive, as the jointing is irregular in regard to direction and
spacing. The principal uses of the stone appear to have been in
monumental and decorative work. It was employed in the trim-
mings of the Y. M. C. A. building in Burlington, and also in the
interior decoration of a Philadelphia church, but had the widest
sale for monuments, of which there are many specimens in the
cemeteries of that vicinity. A local example of its use in buildings
is found in the French Catholic church at Keeseville, which, how-
ever, was constructed mainly of the quarry waste. At the time the
quarries were worked, the branch railroad from Port Kent to
Keeseville had not been built and all the stone had to be hauled to
the lakeside by teams.
G. P. Merrill in his " Stones for Building and Decoration "
speaks of the Keeseville stone as " admirably adapted for polished
columns, pilasters, and other decorative work." But he also re-
marks that the material in some places shows minute fractures
which may prove detrimental to its weathering qualities.
Physical tests. The stone is credited by Smock with a crushing
strength of 29,000 pounds to the square inch, which is higher than
the average. The specific gravity is around 2.75, indicating a weight
of 175 pounds to the cubic foot. Ratio of absorption, .066 per cent.
Empire State Granite Company's quarries
The Empire State Granite Co. has been engaged recently in
the development of quarry lands to the west of Keeseville, near the
Clintonville road, on property owned by George W. Smith of
Keeseville. The company has also an area on the west side of
Augur lake which it has prospected to some extent.
The anorthosite in this section shows more uniformity of char-
acter than that on Prospect hill and its structural features are better
adapted for quarry operations^ It is traversed usually by two series
of vertical joints crossing at right angles. A horizontal series is
also present. It splits readily with plug and feathers in two direc-
tions which correspond to rift and grain in granite. Dimension
stone and paving blocks can be quarried without more difficulty
probably than with ordinary granites. The joints show very little
sap and the stone is practically fresh from the surface.
Two openings have been made on the Smith property west of
Keeseville. At the more westerly one the anorthosite forms a ridge
with a nearly vertical rise on the north of about 50 feet. This is
lOO NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
being developed as a side-hill quarry. The fractured surface of
the rock has a light green color with occasional mottlings of dark
green to black caused by uncrushed remnants of the feldspar. The
polished surface appears sea-green with the same mottling, but
showing also more or less the iridescence peculiar to labradorite.
Close inspection reveals fine specks and threads made up of red
garnet. A 12-foot diabase dike intersects the ledge in an east-Avest
The second quarry, 1000 feet northeast from the former, is a pit
which at the time of the writer's visits was about 20 feet 'deep.
The stone is much coarser with more of the residual feldspar
crystals distributed through the mass. The jointing is in two di-
rections — northeast and northwest — with a horizontal series from
3 to 4 feet apart. Along two of the northeasterly joint seams have
been intruded dikes of trap and syenite porphyry, the former 3
inches and the latter 18 inches wide.
The anorthosite is exposed on the west shores of Augur lake in
a series of clififs from 75 to 100 feet high. The sides of the cliffs
have been exposed directly to the weather ever since the glacial
period at least, yet the weathered stone is only a fraction of an
inch thick. This seems to indicate good resisting powers to frost
and agencies of decomposition. The jointing is very heavy, the
intervals often being 8 or 10 feet. Some of the rock contains
biotite in the place of the usual pyroxene.
Microscopic examination. The general run of the stone from
the different localities may be described as composed of labradorite
in large part, the average being from 75 to 85 per cent. On account
of the frequent residual feldspar crystals, the grain would be called
coarse, although the groundmass itself is fine grained. The larger
feldspars are from 10 to 20 mm in diameter, with occasional in-
dividuals still larger. The principal dark mineral is diopside, which
appears emerald green in thin sections. Hornblende and biotite are
locally developed and take the place of the pyroxene. Garnet is
nearly always present in aggregates of small grains arranged about
the pyroxene, from which it has no doubt been derived in the
metamorphic process. Ilmenite is in small amount and an occasional
speck of pyrite can be seen. The decomposition products are kaolin
from the feldspar and chlorite from the ferromagnesian minerals.
They are not in sufficient amount to cause any noticeable weakening
of the structure.
Physical tests. Specimens of the anorthosite were tested by the
office of public roads. United States Department of Agriculture, at
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK lOI
Washington with the following results, no. i referring to the stone
from the Smith property and no. 2 to that at Augur lake.
Nc. I No. 2
Crushing strenglh, pounds a square inch 20,500 18,500
Specific gravity 2.75 2 . 70
Weight, pounds a cubic foot 172 168
Water absorbed, pounds a cubic foot .51 .49
Wear (French coefficient) 11. 7 10.4
Hardness 18 18
Toughness 13 10
The physical tests indicate that the material meets all the ordinary
requirements cf building material. There can be little doubt as to its
durability under weathering conditions, though it has not been
proved by actual service in buildings. For polished work it should
also prove acceptable on account of its rare color. The only draw-
back to that use seems to be the presence in some of the polished
specimens of minute hairlike fractures visible on close inspection.
These are the more apparent by reason of the translucent back-
ground, but as evidenced by the crushing strength and absorption
do not materially weaken the general structure.
Quarry of C. B. White, Augur lake
Along the west side of Augur lake anorthosite outcrops over a
large area, forming a broad ridge which breaks off at the lakeside
in a line of perpendicular cliffs 100 feet high. It is mostly a light-
colored labradorite rock, of medium grain, in general appearance
not unlike gray granite. It contains scattered crystals of pyroxene
and occasionally some biotite. In places these minerals become
sufficiently abundant to give a rather dark tone to the rock surface,
but generally they are of subordinate importance. The minor
accessory constituents are garnet, ilmenite and a little chlorite and
kaolin from decomposition. The anorthosite is undoubtedly a
good durable building stone.
The property owned by Mr White includes a quarry opening
which lies on top of the ridge above the lake. The quarry was last
worked in 1892; the product was employed in the construction of
the Criminal Courts Building in New York City. A large quantity
of rough stone, much of it suitable for dimension stone, was left
in the quarry. The principal drawback to operations is the long
haulage to the railroad, the nearest shipping point being Keeseville,
the terminus of a short branch railroad that connects with the
Delaware and Hudson line at Port Kent. The quarry is about 5
miles in a direct line from the shore of Lake Champlain.
102 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
THE SPLIT ROCK ANORTHOSITE AREA
The great anorthosite intrusion of the central Adirondacks has its
most easterly exposure on Split Rock mountain, the bold ridge that
forms the western shore of Lake Champlain for several miles, be-
ginning just north of Westport. The whole mountain is practically-
made up of this rock and its gabbroic type, though on the north
end it gives way in places to the Grenville series of limestones and
schists which have been surrounded and borne up apparently by the
igneous mass. The darker phase of the anorthosite is mainly in
evidence in the exposures along the lake and on the north end.
The bulk consists of the grayish feldspathic variety which has been
more or less comminuted by regional compression. In some parts
of the mountain the rock has a distinctly porphyritic appearance by
reason of the large residual feldspar crystals, but again it shows a
local development that is characterized by uniformity of grain.
The only quarry workings in this exposure that are known to the
writer are on the eastern face of the mountain, about one-fourth
of a mile back from the lake and at an elevation of fjom 500 to
600 feet. They are reached by a trail from the Westport road and
also from the lake by folloiwing the old tramway line that was
used to lower the stone. The locality is just north of the little bay
called Barn Rock harbor on the United States geological sheet, but
is mentioned as Barron Rock in Smock's report of 1888. According
to the latter, the quarries were first opened in 1881 by the Cham-
plain Granite and Marble Co., and reopened in 1887 by the Adiron-
dack Granite Co. Under the latter company, as the writer has been
informed, a quantity of building and monumental stone was shipped,
some of the building material having been sent to New York City.
By 1890 the quarries were again closed and have not been worked
General characters. The stone from the quarry site has a
grayish body with porphyritic feldspar of somewhat darker color.
It is practically all feldspar, belonging to the very basic plagioclase
series. Small, scattered crystals of pyroxene (diopside), magnetite
and quartz occur in the interstices of the feldspar aggregate. The
magnetite shows slight decomposition to hematite, but there is little
pyrite, judging from the samples that were examined.
DANNEMORA GRANITE AREA
A gneiss of massive granitic appearance, pink or gray in color,
outcrops on the ridge north of Dannemora, Clinton county. The
exposure is a part of the larger belt of granitic and syenitic gneisses
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK IO3
which are developed extensively in the northern Adirondacks and
are included in the Saranac formation of dishing. In places the
gneisses lose their usual foliated structure and when free of ad-
mixture with other contrasting gneisses are well suited for building
and engineering materials. They contain a predominant proportion
of the feldspar minerals, with moderate to small amounts of quartz
and little of the dark silicates in the form of hornblende and
diopside. Magnetite is a variable constituent, ranging up to 7 or
8 per cent in amount. The texture is fine and compact, the result
of crushing and to some extent of recrystallization of coarse
The principal quarries in this area are situated on the ridge back
of the State Prison and Hospital grounds ; they have been worked
for the supply of building stone for these structures and to some
extent for other purposes. They belong to the firm of Allen &
Cunningham who have operated them under the name of the Danne-
mora Granite Co.
There are two openings situated less than a mile from Dannemora
and from 300 to 400 feet above it. The more northerly one shows a
pink gneiss of fine grain, containing magnetite as the principal dark
ingredient, with more or less hornblende. There are occasional
bunches of the dark minerals and also bands of pegmatite. The
rock is jointed fairly regularly by two vertical veins running north-
south and east-west respectively. Two trap dikes cut the granite
just south of the quarry. The rock face is about 20 feet high. At
the second opening the granite has a similar character and shows
pegmatitic and dark-colored inclusions. A 4-foot trap dike inter-
sects the quarry face in an east-west direction. The face is 100 feet
long and 30 feet high. Jointing is prominent in two directions as
at the first quarry. The streaks and inclusions are the main handi-
cap to the working of the quarry for building purposes, although
by selection a good quality of material can be obtained.
GRANITE IN THE TOWN OF WILTON, SARATOGA COUNTY
A massive gray granite is found in the town of Wilton, Saratoga
county, about 2 miles north of Saratoga Springs. It outcrops on
the easterly-facing ridge which marks the first elevations of the
Precambric highland of the Adirondacks to the west of the Paleo-
zoic plain. The area is of unknown extent but to the north the
granite soon disappears, being succeeded by Grenville schists and
quartzites with bands of crystalline limestone. The granite has a
fine granular texture, the result probably of crushing of a much
I04 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
coarser rock under pressure metamorphism. There is evidence of
the original coarse grain in occasional fragments of feldspar and
quartz which have escaped the general reduction. In its appear-
ance and physical characters it resembles the earlier series of
Adirondack granites, but does not show their well-defined laminated
structure owing to the small proportion of dark minerals.
The granite was quarried quite actively at one time, and the old
quarry face is still conspicuous as a white patch on the face of the
ridge. The quarry property is owned by Henry McGurk of Sara-
toga Springs by whom it was last worked about twenty years ago.
It was operated mainly for paving blocks which were used in the
streets of Albany and Brooklyn, but some building material was
sold of which a specimen structure may be seen in the Hathorn
vault in Saratoga Springs.
The quarry face lies about 80 feet above the base of the ridge
and is 100 feet long. The stone has been quarried back for 60 'feet
or more. Apparently the granite was shot down in large masses
which were then broken up and trimmed into paving blpcks on the
spot. A large amount of waste had accumulated on the Cjuarry
floor to the obstruction of the progress of development. The rock
is traversed by two series of joints of which the more prominent
has a course about N. 25° E. dipping 80° northwest, and the other
about N. 60° W. with a dip of 80° northeast. There is also a series
of division planes inclining about 40° to the south, parallel to which
a faint lamination can be seen in the granite owing to parallel
orientation of the biotite scales. It is said to have a good rift and
grain so as to dress readily with even surfaces. Small bands of
lighter granite are intercalated parallel with the lamination in parts
of the cjuarry, and occasional knots or segregations of pegmatite and
vein quartz are observable. There is, however, a good proportion
of uniform material that could be used for building stone.
The granite is medium gray with very little of the dark silicates,
which are limited mainly to biotite. Garnet in the form of grains
and aggregates of grains up to an inch across is a subordinate but
rather conspicuous constituent. The texture is compact, and the
particles of quartz and feldspars average between i and 2 mm in
diameter, the rock thus belonging to the fine-grained granites.
Microscopic examination. The feldspar consists of orthoclase,
micnocline and oligoclase, all of wliich show some alteration to
sericite which impairs the quality of hardness. The particles are
broken and angular and show strain shadows, evidencing the in-
tense compression the rock has undergone. The cjuartz fills in the
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK IO5
interspaces and is also granulated. The biotite occurs in small
scales, which here and there have been converted into chlorite.
Iron ores occur very sparingly. The granite may be considered as
a fair material for crushed stone or paving blocks and well adapted
for all foundation work.
GRANITE AT HORICON, WARREN COUNTY
An occurrence of granite at Horicon, on the outlet of Brant lake,
Warren county, has supplied some building stone in an experi-
mental way. It has not attracted much attention for commercial
quarry purposes, owing to its remoteness from the railroad and
difificulties of getting the material into the market. The present
interest is mainly connected with the rather unusual nature of the
rock which differs from that of normal granites.
The rock has a porphyritic appearance owing to the presence of
pink feldspars, which measure up to an inch long and are rather
thickly distributed through a groundmass of dark gray color which
is composed of greenish feldspar, quartz and biotite. The large
feldspars give an attractive pattern and a warm tone to the polished
surface. They belong to the microcline variety and are developed
in stout prisms that are usually twinned and occasionally granulated
and squeezed into lenticular form. The greenish feldspar of the
groundmass is a plagioclase identified as oligoclase. It forms
rounded grains 2 or 3 mm in diameter. The biotite occurs in even
smaller particles, but so abundantly as to lend a dark color to the
body of the rock which, apart from the feldspathic constituents,
has the character of a biotite schist.
The rock in fact is really a modified schist, the original of which,
consisting of biotite and cjuartz with subordinate feldspar, has been
drenched with solutions or vapors from a neighboring granite mass.
The presence of the latter at least as an underlying body, is indi-
cated by numerous pegmatite dikes, some of large size, that are
exposed in the vicinity and that contain the same feldspar in-
gredients as the schist itself. In the vicinity of the dikes the
granitic material increases in proportion to that of the original
schist and the rock becomes lighter colored and coarser in grain.
The groundmass is more or less recrystallized and largely absorbed.
The impregnation of hornblende and biotite schists by granites is a
common feature of Adirondack geology, but usually it leads to the
formation of striped or leaf gneisses in which the original schist
and the granite alternate in parallel bands. In the present instance,
however, the added igneous material lacks any definite arrange-
I06 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
ment that might come from injection along definite planes, but is
quite uniformly intermixed as if the impregnation had taken place
with equal facility in all directions.
In consequence of the method of origin the rock varies in ap-
pearance and character f roim place to place, and there would be some
difficulty in quarrying an even grade of product sUch as is required
in building stone. It is a good material, however, for purposes of
ordinary construction, in engineering works, foundations etc.
Though it has not been tested for crushing strength, there is little
doubt that it is fairly up to the average granite in that respect as
well as in other physical qualities that make for durability.
Microscopically the rock appears quite fresh, except for incipient
alteration of the feldspar which is somewhat sericitized. There are
no sulphides ; very little of iron oxides, with magnetite as the single
representative ; and no chloritic ingredients. Along with the second-
ary quartz and feldspar appears a notable amount of apatite in
small prisms which is probably a pneumatolytic product incident to
the granite invasion. The biotite is largely concentrated about the
borders of the feldspar and quartz, as if it had been cfowded out
from the spaces occupied by the latter during their crystallization.
GRANITE NEAR GLOVERSVILLE, FULTON COUNTY
Gneissic rocks suitable for most purposes for which massive
granite is used occur in the Adirondack Precambric area north and
west of Gloversville. The boundary between the gneisses which
form the Adirondack ridges and the Paleozoic sedimentaries at
their base crosses Fulton county diagonally from northeast to
southwest and is paralleled from Northville to Gloversville and
Johnstown by the railroad which, however, is generally from 2 to
3 miles distant from the foot of the ridge.
The principal opening in the vicinity is the Edel quarry which is
situated 35^ miles northwest of Gloversville and, is worked by E. T.
Edel of that place. It has supplied a large amount of architectural
and constructional stone for the prosperous communities along the
Mohawk river, having been operated more or less actively during the
last twenty years. At present, building and curb stone are the
The rock is dark gray and though distinctly laminated shows
little difference in appearance when cut parallel to or across the
bedding. The grain is fine and compact, with some coarser particles
of quartz and feldspar up to 3 or 4 mm in diameter scattered
through the mass. The feldspar is mainly microcline. White
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK ID/
quartz, biotite and a little hornblende are the other ingredients.
There are no sulphides, so far as observed. The material is well
adapted for all general construction purposes, as it is strong and
no doubt as durable as any massive granite of similar composition.
GRANITE AT WHITE LAKE, ONEIDA COUNTY
A pink granite has been quarried to some extent near White Lake
station on the Mohawk and Malone branch of the New York
Central Railroad. It is a medium-grained, compact, slightly
gneissoid rock with very little dark components which consist of
scattered grains of garnet and minute flakes of biotite. It repre-
sents a rather massive phase of the granite gneisses that are of
widespread occurrence in the western Adirondacks.
GRANITIC ROCKS IN THE HIGHLANDS SECTION
THE STORM KING GNEISSOID GRANITE
The prominence at the northern portal of the Hudson gorge,
known as Breakneck ridge, is made up of a homogeneous gneissoid
rock that is generally called the Storm King granite. There is
little doubt of its granitic derivation, and the foliated appearance
which it generally exhibits is a secondary character superinduced
since its first consolidation. The granite is exposed over many
square miles, forming one of the larger areas of that rock in the
Highlands. From the characteristic members of the gneiss series in
the vicinity it is distinguished by its greater uniformity of com-
position and appearance and its usually more massive structures,
while it is also lacking in any marked banding or similarity to a
The granite area is limited on the north by a great unconformity
that separates the Highlands Precambric crystalline formations
from the less metamorphosed Cambro-Siluric strata of the Middle
Hudson region. This break marks also an extensive fault. On the
other sides the area is not sharply defined by topographic or struc-
tural features, and the granite gives way to gneisses which are for
the most part laminated and more or less conspicuously banded and
which include siliceous and calcareous members. The gneisses are
of early Precambric age, the banded sedimentary types being classed
by Berkey as Grenville. The relations of the granite to these
gneisses have not been definitely determined, but it appears likely
from what has been learned that its intrusion took place early in
Precambric time among the first igneous invasions that are clearly
demonstrated in the region.
I08 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
In general the rock is a medium-grained, grayish or reddish,
somewhat gneissoid granite. Parts of the exposure are thoroughly
massive. There is a more or less marked tendency toward pegmati-
zation ; streaks, dikes and irregular bodies of reddish pegmatite are
in evidence in most outcrops, and the granite itself shows coarser
phases produced by disseminated crystals of the same red 'feldspar
that occurs in the pegmatite. Inclusions of a dark hornblendic
rock also occur. They may represent dikes which have been broken
and crumpled, or perhaps are bands of the surrounding gneisses
which have been caught up in the granite at the time of its intrusion.
Jointing is usually a marked feature, but is irregular in direction
except in the case of shear zones which are not infrequent. In
these zones the rock is usually too broken to afford much dimension
material. The surfaces of the sheared granite show some decom-
position and are often coated with chloritic minerals.
The granite from this area could hardly be quarried economicall)'
for architectural building stone, but is serviceable for foundation or
rough work, as well as for crushed stone. For crushing purposes it
is fully equal to the average granite, as the foliation is not suffi-
ciently developed to affect its strength or to cause the stone to
fracture readily in that direction.
Quarries on Breakneck ridge
Quarry sites are found along the south side of Breakneck ridge
for a mile or more back from the river and in the past have' yielded
large quantities of constructional stone, paving blocks and crushed
stone. Quarry work began here in the early part of the last century,
probably before 1825. For the last few years the output has been
intermittent and small.
The principal operations have been carried on at Bailey's quarry
just east of the river and 100 feet above the base of the ridge. The
quarry face extends 300 feet east and west and, is cjuite 100 feet in
height. The quarries were equipped at one time with a crushing
plant which supplied material for highways and railroads but this
has been dismantled. The quarry work itself has not demanded
much ecjuipment as the plan usually followed is to break down the
stone in large blasts and to utilize the product for different purposes
according to its quality and size.
Microscopic examination. The granite belongs to the hornblende
variety, having a dark green hornblende as the ferromagnesian
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK IO9
mineral. The other important ingredients are feldspar and quartz.
The feldspar consists principally of microperthite and an acid
plagioclase, and is sometimes intergrown with the quartz. There
is a little magnetite but apparently no pyrite. The texture is even
granular, compact, scarcely differing from that of a normal granite.
Quarries on Storm King mountain
There are quarries on the southeastern face of Storm King
mountain, almost directly opposite those on Breakneck ridge. They
were once worked for building stone and paving blocks, and Smock
states that buildings in New York and Washington were erected
from this granite. A few years ago the Storm King Stone Co.
erected a large crushing plant here. No dimension stone has been
shipped for a long time. The granite is very similar in composition
and appearance to that on the east side of the river but carries some
biotite as well as hornblende.
Old quarries, long since abandoned, exist on the south side of
Crow's Nest mountain, and on the next ridge to the south which is
partly occupied by the grounds of the West Point Military Acad-
emy. Some of the academy buildings are constructed of material
from these quarries.
THE GARRISON GRANITE BOSS
A small area of massive granite is exposed north of Peekskill
between Manitou and Garrison in Putnam county. It lies within
the main gneiss belt that forms the more rugged part of the High-
lands as exemplified in the Hudson gorge section from Anthony's
Nose to Breakneck ridge on the east bank. The area is about one-
fourth of a mile back from the river and 2^ miles from Garrison,
a station on the New York Central and also a point for river ship-
The outcrop appears to have the structure of a boss which has
cut through the country gneisses but has not shared in their extreme
metamorphism. The gneisses are Precambric and probably belong
to the earlier or basal division of the series represented in this
region. From the field associations the age of the granite intrusion
can only be indefinitely fixed, with a probability in favor of late
Precambric or early Paleozoic times. The proximity of the Cort-
landt series, which is only a few miles to the south, as well as the
no NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
existence of a granitic facies among its highly differentiated repre-
sentatives, might be regarded perhaps as suggestive of some relation
with that invasion which took place as late at least as Siluric time.
A comparison of the Garrison and Peekskill granites shows that
they resemble each other only in regard to color and their uniformly
massive habit. The former is a representative of the normal alkali
class of granites characterized by a preponderance of the potash
feldspar over the lime-soda varieties ; the Peekskill rock on the other
hand shows by its high content of plagioclase an affinity with the
diorite-gabbro series and, strictly considered, is to be classed as a
quartz monzonite. The Garrison boss, also, is distinguished by a
fine cataclastic texture, while the samples of the Peekskill granite
seldom show any appreciable effects of pressure metamorphism.
These features point more or less clearly to a separate, independent
source of the two intrusives and the prior age of the Garrison boss.
The granite has been quarried quite extensively for building stone
and foundation material, for which purposes it is very well adapted.
The main opening is known as King's quarry, operated, at one time
by the King Granite Co., and later by Doern & Sons of New
Some of the buildings erected from material secured at this
quarry are : St Joseph's Church, Tremont av. & Washington St.,
New York ; Guard House at West Point ; powder magazine on lona
island in the Hudson river ; and a school building in Tarrytown.
The property has not been worked extensively for the last few
years 'and probably will not again be a very active producer. The
granite boss, however, extends out on the adjoining lands, so that
other quarries may be operated in the future. A site already pros-
pected is found just south of King's quarry on the land of Raymond
Moore of Peekskill.
Field characters. The general structure and quality of the
granite are best shown at King's quarr)^ which covers perhaps half
an acre of surface and has a face up to 50 feet high. The principal
structural feature is lent by the jointing which is well developed,
especially the sheet joints. The latter divide the exposed rock into
elongated horizontal lenses that are from i to 3 feet thick in the
middle but increasing in size as depth is attained. The sheets are
inclined slightly toward the northwest. Three sets of steeply in-
clined joints also occur, of which the most prominent strikes north
and south and dips 70° east; another set strikes N. 40° W. and
dips 70° southwest ; and the third strikes east-west and dips 60°
north. The rift is stated to be about parallel v/ith the first set.
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK III
In physical appearance the granite is characterized by a fine grain,
medium gray color of body that is well blended, and massive to
faintly gneissoid texture. Small crystals of garnet are sparsely
scattered through the mass but are noticeable only on close view.
There are few streaks or discolorations apparent in the exposure.
Microscopic examination. The rock consists essentially of
feldspar, quartz and biotite in order of importance, with garnet as
an accessory which has probably been formed by a partial recrystal-
lization of the minerals caused by compression exerted upon the
boss after its intrusion. The feldspar and quartz are in irregular
particles closely interwoven. Their average diameter is about 5 mm.
The biotite is in very fine beds, sprinkled like dust through the gray
groundmass. The texture is close and firm.
The feldspar minerals include microcline, microperthite and ortho-
clase as representatives of the alkali class and an acid plagioclase
which has subordinate importance to the others. They are but little
altered. The biotite is somewhat bleached or partly changed to
chlorite. The absence of pyrite or other igneous ingredients is
Physical tests. The granite from this quarry has a specific
gravity of 2.68, ratio of absorption .3 per cent, and pore space
.792 per cent.
ROUND ISLAND GRANITE
Round island, in the Hudson just above Peekskill, is made up
of granite which at one time was actively quarried for crushed
stone. The quarry was worked up to ten years ago by Daniel
Donovan of Kingston. The site of the quarry was not visited by
the writer and there are no details available as to the character
of the stone aside from the following chemical analysis, supplied
by Mr Donovan :
FeO I. SI
112 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
THE PEEKSKILL OR MOHEGAN GRANITE
Granite intrusions are found on the borders of the area occupied
by the Cortlandt series, which is the name given to an interesting
group of basic igneous rocks exposed to the south and east of
Peekskill. The Cortlandt series comprises diorites, gabbros, norites,
pyroxenites and other types of basic habit, with such relationship
as to indicate that they represent the differentiated products of a
single deep-seated magma. Their intrusion took place probably as
late as Siluric times since the series breaks through and includes
portions of the metamorphosed sediments that are classed with -the
Hudson River series of the Lower Siluric. Their outcrop extends
over an area 5 miles in east-west diameter and about 4 miles from
north to south, in outline an immense boss.
The granite exposures are on the north side of the Cortlandt area
and immediately adjacent to it. The first outcrop encountered
on the west is a mile or so out of Peekskill on the little knob lying
between the Lake Mohegan road and the east- west highway, just
west of the line of the Catskill Aqueduct. The locality is known
as the Roberts quarry. Millstone hill, which lies a mile farther east
and south of the east-west highway, is made up in its northern
slopes of granite, but is apparently near the contact with the basic
rocks of the Cortlandt series which appears on the next prominence
to the west. A third place where granite appears in force is across
the valley from Millstone hill, on the south and west slopes of a
ridge, about a mile south from Lake Mohegan. The Mohegan
Granite Company has quarries at this locality.
In the several exposures which embrace between them an area
of 3 or 4 miles, there is naturally some variation in the appearance
and composition of the granite, though as a whole the samples from
the different quarries exhibit a degree of uniformity which would
seem to establish their identity with one and the same intrusive
mass. This uniformity is reflected in the predominance of white
feldspar, mainly orthoiclase, aibite and oligoclase, which gives a
light tone to the lock wherever exposed, in the presence of both
biotite and muscovite, a moderate to small content of transparent
quartz, and in the granitic texture which ranges from medium to
fine grained. It aippears. probable that the different quarries are lo-
cated on outcrops of a single body which has the Cortland series
on the southwest and lies against the metamorphic rocks, including
Paleozoic schists, on the remaining border. The exact extent and
shape of the mass is somewhat indefinite, as there is a heavy cover-
^.. .JrV. '
. V (
■. , ; 1
- _- . ■ :;^.y* Ji
-fit/ - - '^^^1
k^ -■ , ,"■ (iB .i(^ISjaBigK8^^^^T^MHH
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK II3
ing of soil and detritus over the low ground that intervenes between
Owing to the prevalence of plagioclase among the feldspars
represented, the Peekskill granite shows a relatively high pro-
portion of soda as compared with most granites and appears to be
genetically allied with the diorites of the Cortlandt series. This
feature, as well as the field relationships already mentioned, lends
support to the view expressed by Berkey ^ that the granite repre-
sents but a phase of the Cortlandt invasion and not a separate
body ; it constitutes the acid extreme of the series which in the
other direction range through diorite, gabbro and norite to rocks
like pyroxenite and peridotite that are destitute of quartz and feld-
The granite like the typical Cortlandt rocks, is thoroughly mas-
sive in texture, lacking evidences of strong compression and the
gneissoid development which are so common among the Precambric
and early Paleozoic rocks of this section. Its intrusion occurred
therefore after the period of regional metamorphism that marked
the close of Lower Siluric time — the last stage in the general
metamorphism of the region. The contact of the granite with the
country rocks is very generally concealed, but inclusions that ap-
parently represent the bordering schists are not infrequent and
sufficiently establish the nature of the contact relations in that
respect. The latest of the country schists belong to the Hudson
River series. The inclusions mostly in evidence are amphibolites
and dark hornblende schists which undoubtedly came from some of
the earlier and underlying formations.
The view expressed as to the common derivation of the granite
and the Cortlandt rocks can not be supported by observations in
regard to their mutual contact relations, as such information was
not procurable when the writer visited the locality. There seems
to be complete similarity, however,, in their attitude with respect to
the crystalline schists, and the field evidences, so far as they go,
are indicative of a geologically contemporaneous intrusion for both
granite and gabbros.
Mohegan Granite Company's quarries
The quarry property of the Mohegan Granite Company is situated
a little east of the Cortlandt township line in Yorktown, West-
chester county, on the southwestern slope of a prominent ridge
' Science, 28: 575, 1908.
NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK . II5
which extends northward past Mohegan lake. The workings He
between 400 and 500 feet above tidewater at Peekskill and 5 miles
distant by the highway. Regular quarry operations date from 1892
when the granite was wrought by E. P. Roberts for the construction
of the dams at Carmel and Purdy station in connection with the
New York water supply. The granite was later selected, after an
extended search for material adapted to the purpose, for the con-
struction of the Cathedral of St John the Divine, the largest church
edifice in America, and during several years the quarries have been
engaged in supplying cut stone for that structure which will require
shipments for some time to come. It has been used also in other
buildings in New York, including the residences of Charles M.
Schwab on Riverside drive and of Clarence W. Bowen on 63d street,
the Postal Telegraph Building on lower Broadway, the Cross Build-
ing on Fifth avenue, and several of the houses^ in the Bronx Geo-
logical Gardens. It has also found considerable sale for monu-
mental work, examples of which may be seen in many of the larger
cities of the east.
The quarries furnish two varieties of the granite, a light gray of
more or less pinkish hue and a rich yellowish brown that is almost
a golden yellow when seen at close range. The yellow granite has
no match in beauty and uniformity of its color among eastern
granites and its warm, subdued effect in buildings has won favor
wherever the stone has been introduced. -The light gray color is
characteristic for the Peekskill granite as a whole and occurs below
the yellow at varying depths, but usually the change occurs at or
about 40 or 50 feet. The color variation so pronounced at these
quarries seems to be purely local, the yellow granite occurring no-
where else and being the result, as later explained, of secondary
influences at work since the consolidation of the intrusion and its
exposure at the surface.
The quarry openings extend over a distance of several hundred
feet on the hill slope, which falls off rather steeply to the west.
The thin soil covering supports a moderate forest growth and
serves to conceal the outcrop over much of the undeveloped ground.
The granite is known, however, to cover an extensive area. The
principal quarry is at the south end, and runs northeasterly for
300 feet, showing a face against the hill of about 40 or 50 feet.
This quarry is served by a short inclined tramway on which the
cars are raised and lowered by a cable. The granite has a slightly
sheeted structure, the sheets dipping 15° or 20° west. There are
two principal joint systems, one vertical with a strike of N. 70 "" E.,
Il6 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
'and the other inchned 80° or 90" and striking N. 30° W. The rift
is about north-south and nearly vertical. The joints are irregularly
spaced, usually at fairly wide intervals, but in one place form a
heading where only material for crushing purposes is secured.
Dimension stone of almost any merchantable size can be quarried.
Knots and streaks are rare and dikes apparently absent. There
are occasional inclusions of the country schists, the larger ones
being on the northwest and east sides of the c[uarries. A con-
spicuous example which is found on the north side of the incline
consists of black hornblende schist that has been injected by granite
and pegmatite and forms a vertical wall for a short distance, wedg-
ing out finally in the granite which apparently surrounds it com-
The quarries are equipped with modern machinery for breaking,
hoisting and cutting the granite, but as yet are scarcely developed
to the stage that admits the most advantageous operations. The
stone is mostly dressed on the ground. The cost of haulage by
wagon to Peekskill makes that necessary. Increased facilities for
cutting have recently been provided by the erection of a steel-frame
shed of dimensions 130 by 50 feet. The capacity for turning out
finished material is thereby more than doubled. The equipment at
the quarries includes a 50-ton crushing plant for working up the
Microscopic character. The granite from this locality belongs
to the medium-grained class, inclining toward the finer end of the
scale. It is a mixture of feldspar, quartz and mica in their order
of abundance. The feldspar and quartz are mostly under .25 cm
in diameter, the quartz individuals occasionally slightly exceeding
that limit. The mica includes both biotite and muscovite and is so
finely divided and evenly distributed as to be little noticeable except
against the white background of the light gray granite. The feld-
spars include albite, oligoclase and subordinate orthoclase, all of
which show incipient alteration by their clouded appearance under
the microscope. Chlorite is sparingly present as an alteration
product of the biotite. The accessory constituents include magnetite,
zircon and apatite in very small amounts.
The yellow or golden hue characteristic of the superficial part of
the granite is due to the presence of a little limonite stain distributed
along the borders and microscopic cracks of the quartz and feldspar,
particularly of the quartz which seems to carry most of the color-
ing matter. The stain is not accompanied by any marked softening
or decomposition, contrary to what might perhaps be expeoted, for
■^^y ^^C^A^*^* "^^W^-^'^
1 • ©"'- ^
F ■ *^
■*if . "..'■ - -„S
Mohegan yellow granite. Peekskill
.-1. ,'^'' . / A iT*. t -.■•■■ .^. /
Mohegan gray granite. Peekskill
OUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK
the granite when examined microscopically appears little more
weathered than the gray variety. The apparently even distribution
of the coloring matter when the rock is viewed in the mass disap-
pears on closer examination and the stain is seen to be developed
in flecks and lines scattered over a white background of feldspar
and quartz. Most of the limonite is found in the quartz which is
the ingredient that shows the most granulation and consecjuently the
Fig. II The yellow Mohegan granite, showing concentration of limonite
along the borders and in the cleavage cracks of the mineral particles
most open space for its deposition. The source of the limonite is
traceable to iron-bearing solutions from the surface which found their
way downward along the joints and then diiTused through the rock
by means of the capillary openings. It may have been derived from
decay of the overlying rock in the long j^eriod of exposure previous
to Preglacial time, but of such a zone of disintegration there is no
remaining evidence at present and is hardly to be expected after the
erosive work of the ice. The limonite often seems to be concen-
trated about the biotite, but this is not a result primarily of a
chemical alteration of that mineral, but rather arises from the in-
filtration of the iron along the cleavage planes of the biotite. Much
of the biotite is perfectly fresh, showing no bleaching or other
change that could result in freeing any of the iron. In some of the
Il8 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
sections exaniinccl a small i:)roporlioii of the flakes showed partial
or complete change to chlorite. The amount of iron set free from
the biotite in any case is entirely insufficient to produce the present
Chemical and physical features. The following data in regard
to the granite was supplied by the Mohegan Granite Co. in 1904 in
response to the request from this office. The tests were made on
four separate samples in the laboratories of Ricketts & Banks.
It was not specified whether they were based on the yellow or the
Iron Sulphur Specific strength
Sample per cent per cent gravity lbs. a sq. in.
1 .34 .015 2.64 21,979
2 .86 trace 2.62 19,303
3 -30 .022 2.64. 12,547
4 I. IS .015 2.67 16,889
The lower crushing strength of no. 3 is accounted for by a defect
in cutting the sample which resulted in the loss of a chip from one
corner. The tests evidence the physical soundness of the granite
and confirm the results of quarry and microscopic examinations.
The weathering qualities of the granite are considered excellent.
The pyrite content as indicated by the sulphur percentage is too
small to have any influence.
A sample of the light gray granite tested by the writer had a ratio
of aibsorption of .319 per cent and pore space .829 per cent. The
yellow granite showed a ratio of absorption .368 per cent, pore
space .962 per cent.
An analysis of the granite from this quarry by Elwyn Waller
is given herewith :
FeO 1. 19
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK II9
Millstone Hill or Cornell quarry
The largest opening in the Peekskill granite is on Millstone hill
south of the highway leading east from Peekskill and adjacent to
the line of the Catskill Aqueduct. It is across the valley and a
mile distant from the Mohegan Granite Company's quarries, in
Cortlandt township. The main development of the property re-
sulted from the operations by Coleman, Breuchaud & Coleman, the
contractors for the new Croton dam which was constructed entirely
from material secured at this place. The quarry has furnished also
some stone for buildings in the vicinity, notably the Drum hill
school at Peekskill. It has been idle for the last few years, but
recently has come into the control of Rudiger Brothers who aim to
The quarry lies east and west on the ridge, about 150 feet above
the highway. The lower ground is heavily covered with soil and
drift. The excavation measures about 500 feet long and 200 feet
wide in extreme dimensions and has lDeen carried downward to a
depth ranging from 30 feet on the north side to 75 feet on the
south. No hoists or other equipment are standing on the property.
In the period of operation the stone was transported on a tramway
to the Croton dam, but the road has been torn up. The outlet is
by way of Peekskill to the railroad or the Hudson river, involving
a haulage of about 4 miles.
In the C[uarry the granite shows the characteristic massive struc-
ture; joints are rather wide apart and irregularly spaced, except on
the west end where they form a heading. The joint systems include
a north-south series which dips 80° west and an east-west vertical
series. Horizontal division planes have little persistence, hardly
justifying their reference to sheeting, though there is some tendency
toward division on planes dipping slightly south and west. The
rift is reported to run parallel with the north-south joints. No dikes
or large inclusions are observable in the quarry walls.
At this quarry there is no capping of yellow granite, so prominent
in the Mohegan property, and the only suggestion of any color
change consists of a slightly mottled effect produced by a little
lirn'onite stain around the biotite crystals, like the rust on iron. This
is apparently the initial step in the transformation from gray to yel-
low. The granite from the deeper parts of the quarry, however,
is entirely free of limonite with a very uniform body that appears
almost white. The quality is excellent for all architectural purposes.
I20 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
Microscopic character. Feldspar is first in importance as a con-
stituent and consists mainly of albite or acid oligoclase with sub-
ordinate orthoclase. The individual crystals often show marked
zonal structure. Alteration is evidenced by clouding and the de-
velopment of muscovite and probably also of kaolin. The quartz
is slightly gray or smoky in color. Of the micas, muscovite is
equally common with the biotite variety and occurs in original
crystals, as well as secondary growths from feldspar. The biotite
shows partial change to chlorite. Iron ores are very scarce except
for the little limonite that occurs in the exposed part of the granite.
The grain may be classed as medium, the coarser particles of feld-
spar and quartz attaining a diameter of lo mm. The interspaces
are filled up with finer interlocking individuals and the texture is
Crushing strength. A crushing test performed by Ricketts &
Banks on a samiple fro^m the quarry, as co-mmjunicated by J. M.
Rudiger, showed an ultimate strength of nearly 21,000 pounds
to the square inch. The details are as follows: size qf cube, 1.99
by 2 by 1.99 inches ; area 3.98 inches ; breaking strain 83,100 pounds ;
ultimate strength 20,870 pounds a square inch. The granite is
unquestionably strong and durable.
An exposure of granite occurs in the knob lying just southeast
of Jacobs hill and between the Peekskill-Lake Mohegan road and
the Catskill Aqueduct. It is more than a mile west of Millstone
hill. The knob is of small compass, a few hundred feet in diameter
and less than 100 feet high. It has been opened on the southeastern
side to supply stone for local construction. The quarry is only
about a mile out of Peekskill and appears to be located at the most
accessible point of the granite area.
The quarry cut is about 100 feet long, with two small-sized der-
ricks in place. The granite is well jointed along two directions,
N. 60° W., and N. 20° E. but is not sheeted.
The stone differs considerably in texture and appearance from
that exposed in other parts of the area, but the general composition,
so far as the nature of the mineral ingredients are concerned, is
similar. It has a coarse grain which is made very prominent by the
large micaceous aggregates of dark color, whereas the body of
feldspar and quartz has the usual light hue. These aggregates
formed by intergrowing muscovite and biotite attain a diameter of
half an inch ; they are oriented parallel with the rift, and to surfaces
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 121
cut in that direction lend a mottled aspect. The quartz and feldspar
are in granulated condition, probably the result of compression
upon what originally were large crystals but are now finely com-
minuted. There is some limonite stain in zones about the mica.
The granite at this quarry appears darker when observed in mass
than the average of the other quarries. It would be classed as
medium gray, with a pinkish tone, the pink being fairly decided in
As a variant of the Peekskill granite boss may be mentioned an
outcrop which lies but a few rods to the east of the Roberts quarry
and undoubtedly is a part of the intrusion. It is characterized by
the abundance of mica, much greater in amount than observed in
the rock elsewhere. The color as a consequence is quite dark.
From microscopic examination the feldspar appears to be almost
entirely plagioclase and to predominate largely over the quartz.
The rock by itself would be classed as a granodiorite, and the oc-
currence serves to bring out the close relation that probably exists
between the granite and the more basic types which constitute the
Cortlandt series proper. The ledge is too small to have any im-
portance for quarry purposes.
THE YONKERS GNEISSOID GR.\NITE
A light-colored granite with a markedly foliate texture is found
in southern Westchester county where it is the basis of rather ex-
tensive quarry operations. Under the name of the Yonkers gneiss
it has been described by Merrill and others and its igneous derivation
clearly established. The fact, however, that the foliated appearance
in the main is not the result of secondary recrystallization or meta-
morphism, but an original feature imparted during the first consol-
idation of the magma has not been generally recognized. On ac-
count of this fact it seems more appropriate to call the rock granite
than gneiss, the latter term implying, as it does, the effects of
According to the recent work of Berkey, the Yonkers is probably
to be classed with the early Precambric series of intrusions which
are represented in the Highland region by the Storm King boss.
It seems to be confined to thin sills which are intrusive in the
Fordham gneiss. The development of the parallel arrangement of
the constituents may be explained as the effects of compression
exerted during the intrusion of the granite while it was still in a
condition of mobility, facilitated by the relatively thin mass of the
granite. There is little in the way of secondary crystallization as
122 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
seen in acid gneisses. Examples of what appears to be crushed and
sheared gneiss are frequently observable in the field but they are
probably the result of viscous flowage of the magma.
The granite outcrops in several areas. The principal belt within
which most of the quarries are situated parallels the Bronx river
and Harlem Railroad from a point a little south of Mount Vernon
to Hartsdale, near White Plains. The outcrop lies along a series
of hills and ridges between the Bronx and the parallel valleys of
Tibbitt and Troublesome brooks. Its surface shows only moderate
relief, the highest elevations slightly exceeding 300 feet, with in-
tersecting notches and cross-valleys whose bottoms mostly are be-
tween 100 and 200 feet. The main intrusion is nearly 10 miles
long, but not much over one-half of a mile wide. This form doubt-
less results from a sill or sheetlike intrusion of the original granite
which penetrated the sedimentary formations of the Fordham along
the bedding planes and has since been upturned so as to afford a
A second area of the Yonkers occurs along the axis of the main
belt farther north, near Valhalla and the Kensico reservoir. This
has not been so actively worked as a source of building stone.
There are a few quarries, however, that have been operated at
different times, mainly to supply foundation material, including that
used in the Kensico dam.
General characters. The Yonkers granite varies more or less in
physical structure and appearance. This observation applies even
to the limited area of a single exposure, where occasionally the char-
acteristic thinly foliate rock may be seen grading over into a quite
massive one. There is little variation, however, in respect to the
mineral composition, and the whole rock mass is c[uite free from
segregations and inclusions. The quarry sites in most instances
have been selected with a view to uniformity of the material
which is obtainable to a fair degree. Eckel ^ describes the general
features of the Yonkers as follows :
The color of the Yonkers gneiss varies from a light blue to a
rather deep red. This variation is partly due to the fact that the
blue grades in most cases contain more quartz and less feldspar.
A much more potent cause, however, is that the feldspars themselves
are either red or bluish. This difference in color is not due to a
difference in the feldspar species, as the microcline and sheared
orthoclase appear in both the red and blue Yonkers, and in about
the same relative proportions.
1 The Quarry Industry of Southeastern New York. N. Y. State Mus.
Rep't 54, 1902, p. 155-
Yorkers gneissic granite, showing plastic yielding and flowage. Kerbaugh
Graphic granite, an intergrowth of quartz and feldspar. From Bedford,
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 1 23
The difference of color is of importance economically. ' The red
forms decay rapidly, while the blue, though often becoming stained
yellow by iron, do not appear to disintegrate. The writer has not
been able to follow up this investigation as far as he could have
wished, and the discussion in this paper should be regarded as
merely preliminary to a more detailed presentation of the subject.
The inference in the above quotation that the color variation has
significance with respect to the durability or weathering qualities of
the granite claims attention, though no explanation is vouchsafed in
the paper. The present study has not afforded any clear evidence
of such relationship. There is apparently a wide difference in the
capacity of the granite to withstand disintegration, but this feature
seems more related to the textural characters than to any peculiar-
ities of the mineral constituents that are reflected in the color.
Some natural surfaces are practically fresh, though they have
been exposed to atmospheric conditions since Glacial time. In other
places the granite is disintegrated to some depth. The first stages of
weathering are usually manifested in a weakened cohesion of the
mineral particles, as the result of the alternate expansion and con-
traction under varying temperatures. The microscopic cracks and
pore spaces are enlarged with the progress of weathering. The
final stage of this physical disintegration is reached when the rock
becomes a loose, mealy aggregate of quartz, feldspar and mica.
Chemical decay, of course, accompanies the physical breakdown
and is first evidenced in the separation of iron oxide and the soften-
ing of the feldspar, but it is mainly effective after the rock has
undergone partial disintegration.
It is evident from a study of the granite in the field that the
texture has much to do with its weathering qualities. The types
which are characterized by a closely knit fabric, with the individual
grains well interlocked, as observed in most unchanged granites,
are resistant to weathering. Such textures are found in the massive
varieties of the rock and in the foliated types which have not under-
gone noticeable granulation from shearing action. The granular
even-textured types, on the other hand, are apt to be of more
porous nature and more prone to disintegrate.
The Yonkers is quite free of knots and streaks arising from ir-
regular mineral distribution. The principal variation relates to
texture and grain. Coarse, massive phases occur here and there as
a kind of pegmatitic development. Some exposures are only
moderately foliated. The characteristic rock, however, is thinly
foliate, with the biotite interleaving the quartz and feldspar at
124 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
The granite, with the exception of the very granular sorts as noted
above, is a serviceable stone for all general construction purposes.
It has no ingredients to cause discoloration or decay with the lapse
of time. Its durability, when subjected to mere weathering, can
scarcely be inferior to ordinary granite, though of course it has not
the same ability to withstand abrasion or wear, on account of its
tendency to cleave along the foliation planes. The many buildings
in Yonkers and vicinity that have been constructed of this stone are
evidence of its good quality as a structural material.
Microscopic examination. The mineralogy of the granite is
simple ; feldspar, quartz and biotite are the components in order of
their relative importance. The feldspar is divided between ortho-
clase and microcline, with a little plagioclase. The quartz has a
bluish tint and with the biotite often lends a decided bluish cast
to the cleavage surfaces, whereas the color across the foliation is
prevailingly pink, like that of the feldspar. Under compression, the
quartz has developed into lenticular or spindle-shaped individuals,
while the feldspar has been corroded and broken dowii into small
The subordinate constituenits include hornblende, iron oxide,
titanite, and zircon. Sulphides appear to be absent from the mass
of the rock. There is little change noticeable in the thin sections,
except a slight kaolinization of the feldspars and separation of small
amounts of iron from the biotite.
The rock is fine to medium in grain. The lines of foliation
marked by the biotite are mostly spaced from 4 to 10 mm apart.
Quarry development. Quarry work in the Yonkers belt has
been carried on for a long time, but until about twenty years ago
did not reach any considerable proportions-. Eckel states that most
of the quarries operative at the time of his report were opened
around 1892. At that time, and in the few subsequent years, there
was unusual activity in building and engineering construction, par-
ticularly by the railroads, which had a great deal of work in con-
nection with bridges and retaining walls under way. The market
for stone, however, was mainly local, and with the completion of
these improvements the demand so declined as to compel the closing
of many quarries. The present outlet is principally for building
stone, as illustrated by many public and private structures in
Yonkers and vicinity, also in partly dressed condition for founda-
tion work, and as blocks and crushed stone for road improvements.
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 1 25
A number of quarry sites mentioned in the earlier descriptions of
the industry by Smock and others have been converted into building
plots or otherwise utilized so as to exclude their further exploitation
for stone. Some of the more important of the old Cjuarries, not
now worked, will be mentioned here for the purpose of record.
The Valentine quarries are described by Mather as operative at
the time of this report (1842) and are also referred to by Smock.
They were situated 2 miles southeast of Yonkers, on the Mount
Vernon road. They ^yere worked at intervals when Smock made
his report and have since been abandoned.
A cjuarry on the Stewart estate, near Dunwoodie, was worked
for several years by O'Rourke Brothers of Yonkers. It supplied
rough and cut building stone and crushed stone. Production
ceased in 1908.
The McCabe quarry in the town of Scarsdale, about a mile east
of Hartsdale, was opened in gneiss similar to the Yonkers, but
lying off the main belt. The output was mainly crushed stone, with
some rough foundation stone. The quarry has been idle for about
ten years and will not again be worked.
An unnamed quarry, situated about an eighth of a mile north of
the preceding, in the town of White Plains, near the Cambridge
road, was operative a few years ago, but has now been permanently
abandoned. It produced rough and cut building stone and road
material. There was much waste, owing to pegmatitic admixture
and the closely spaced joints. The opening was 400 feet long, ex-
posing 40 feet of a light variety of gneiss, not distinguishable from
the Yonkers in its characteristic occurrence.
A small quarry once existed in the town of North Castle, about
a mile northeast of Silver Lake, and was known as the Collins
quarry. The rock, according to Eckel, was reddish foliated gneiss
of the Yonkers type. Production was restricted to local needs and
it has been closed in recent years.
The quarry once worked by Dennis Cahill and situated on Reid-
land avenue, east of Central avenue, has been permanently closed.
The Flannery quarry in the same vicinity has produced a small
quantity of stone in recent years, but will not be worked in the
The Seely quarry, one-half of a mile west of Scarsdale, has been
abandoned many years and probably will not again be worked.
The Ferris, Dinnan and Outlet quarries are old openings in the
body of Yonkers gneiss near Valhalla.
126 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
Hackett Brothers, of Yonkers, have operated a quarry for several
years in the northern part of the main Yonkers belt. Their property
lies about a mile north of Dunwoodie, at the junction of Midland
and Central avenues, and is opened for a distance of 800 feet along
the course of the gneiss.
The working face is about 40 feet high. The quarry has furnished
a large amount of building stone, which is its chief product. Some
of the larger structures in which the stone has been used are:
St Joseph's Seminary, Dunwoodie ; Seton Hospital, Spuyten Duyvil ;
St Joseph's Hospital, Yonkers ; St John's Hospital, Yonkers ; St
Dennis Church, Lowerre ; and public school buildings Nos. 3, 9, 10,
15, 18, Yonkers. Polished examples are shown in the columns of
the county jail at White Plains.
The rock is characteristic Yonkers, rather fine in grain and of
bluish color, as seen in the quarry ledge. This color becomes more
of a pink on the cleavage surface of hand specimens, owing to the
fact that the colored feldspars are much pressed out, along the
foliation. The hammer-dressed surfaces are a medium gray. The
stone is free of spots and discolorations.
The gneissoid foliation at this locality is quite regular in direction
and character. The strike is N. 30° E. and the dip vertical or
slightly turned to the west. Horizontal joints are well developed,
at an average of from 3 to 5 feet apart, permitting bench operations.
A second system of joints parallels the foliation, and the third
strikes N. 65° W. and dips 80° W. The structure is well suited to
the production of dimension stone. The rift, of course, runs with
In quarrying, the stone is broken out by, black powder. Holes
are put down about 10 feet by a steam drill. This method naturally
yields a large quantity of material unsuited for building stone and
this finds sale for rough foundation work, particularly in macadam
and telford roads. There are two derricks in place. The average
force is about ten men. Shipments by rail are made by the Putnam
division of the New York Central Railroad.
A quarry, operated by Louis Perri, is situated on the east side of
Central avenue, across from the Hackett property. It is just west
of the site of the old O'Rourke quarry, now converted into building
lots. The opening at this place is about 100 feet long and affords
a face about 30 feet high, practically unweathered to the surface.
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK I27
The rock is uniform in color and grain, representing a good quality
of the Yonkers gneiss. The foliate texture is prominent and has
a north-south strike with a vertical dip. The joint structures in-
clude a horizontal set spaced about 8 feet, along which the stone is
quarried in benches. There are also north-south and east-west sets
spaced about 20 feet apart. On the north side of the quarry, the
east- west joints are more crowded, practically forming a heading,
and the rock in that section is adapted only for road material.
The quarry is worked in a small way and the stone mostly sold
dressed as lintels, sills etc. Hand drills are used and the stone
broken out by black powder. The only mechanical equipment is
a horse derrick. Some good-sized blocks are quarried, the largest
measuring about 3 by 6 by 8 feet. The rock breaks quite smoothly
along the foliation.
A small quarry has been opened in the last few years and recently
operated by John Russo. It. lies about 1000 feet south of the
Hackett quarry on Midland avenue, near Dunwoodie. The rock is
the same fine-grained bluish or pinkish gneiss, of foliate structure,
but is rather more broken than at the former quarry. The vertical
and horizontal joints are mostly spaced at intervals of 2 or 3 feet,
so that large-sized blocks are seldom quarried. The product is
building stone, employed locally in the construction of dwelling
houses. The scrap and inferior quality rock are sold for road
material. The work is all done by hand.
A microscopic examination of the gneiss from this quarry shows
that there is considerable hornblende in addition to biotite, which
is the prevailing dark mineral. The feldspars and quartz are
partially granulated and the uncrushed remnant is drawn out along
the planes of foliation, the larger and smaller particles often occur-
ring in alternating bands. The rock is quite fresh, except for the
incipient alteration of the biotite. This has set free some iron which
as limonite forms a slight stain along the cracks and sutures. Zircon
and titanite are fairly abundant accessory minerals. The average
diameter of the quartz and feldspar particles is between .5 and
I mm, so that the texture is unusually fine.
The Beekman quarry is perhaps the oldest of the quarries in
the Yonkers gneiss. It was worked in the early part of the last
century and has been operative at intervals down to the present.
It is situated at Phillipse Manor, about a mile north of Tarrytown,
128 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
and is thus outside the principal areas of Yonkers. The principal
opening reveals a bluish gneiss which is much fractured and inter-
sected by a pegmatite dike. The latter occupies nearly one-third
of the face which measures 60 feet in width. The gneiss strikes
north and south and dips 60° east. When visited in 191 1, the
quarry was equipped with one steam drill and a rock breaker. In
recent years the output has been used on the estate of which the
quarry is a part for road and foundation work.
South of the main cut is an opening in a bluish and pink variety
of gneiss. The blue is much jointed, while the pink gneiss appears
to be very brittle.
The Beekman quarry has supplied material for several structures
in Tarrytown, including churches and other buildings.
The principal quarry development of recent date in the Yonkers
gneiss is that of H. S. Kerbaugh, Inc., the contractor on the new
Kensico reservoir which is to form a part of the Catskill water
supply system. To increase the capacity of the reservoir, a dam
that will be 100 feet" higher than the old structure and of corre-
spondingly massive proportions is in course of erection at Valhalla
at the south end of the reservoir. This structure is to consist of
Yonkers gneiss obtained from an area explored to the east of the
ridge, about one-half mile northeast of the dam.
The geological features of the reservoir site have been presented
by Berkey,^ who also investigated the various quarry materials of
the vicinity with the view to their adaptability for use in the work.
The Yonkers gneiss is an outlier of the main belt and is exposed
on the ridge to the east of the reservoir, while the west side is made
up of Manhattan schist, with Inwood limestone in concealed outcrop
between the two.
Berkey mentions several quarries in the vicinity that have not
been previously noted. These include the Outlet quarry, 1500
feet east of the northern extremity of the old reservoir; the Ferris
quarry 1000 feet farther north ; and the Dinnan quarry 3000 feet
north of the Outlet cjuarry. All these are in Yonkers gneiss or
massive phases of that rock. In addition he mentions the Garden
cjuarry, about midway of the reservoir and 500 feet east of its
margin, opened in dioritic gneiss; the Smith cjuarry, less than 1000
1 Geology of the New York City (Catskill) Aqueduct. N. Y. State
Museum Bui. 146, 191 1, p. 191-200.
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 1 29
feet east of the southern end of the reservoir, in a mixture of
igneous and Fordham gneisses ; and the City quarr_v, on the eastern
margin of the reservoir, also in i. mixed phase.
The quarries from which the supply of stone for the dam is
being obtained are apparently a new location, considerably south
of the others in the Yonkers area. They are based on an exposure
of several acres, thinly covered with soil which, when removed,
shows glaciated but practically fresh rock at the surface. The first
few inches from the surfaces show a slight brownish stain, but no
marked decomposition. There are scattered inclusions of micaceous
and hornblendic gneis':es, the former perhaps derived from the
Fordham. For the most part, however, the area consists of Yonkers
in quite uniform development, well suited for architectural or
general construction purposes. There is some variation of texture
which ranges from massive and medium or coarse-grained to finely
granular foliated gneiss. The massive type appears in limited
quantity. The foliation is in part a result of flowage when the
mass was still in a viscous condition. Pegmatitic and aplitic phases
of the rock are not infrequent, the two occurring in irregular
patches rather than dikes. The pegmatite is distinguished by large
red, perthitic feldspars and smoky quartz with more or less graphic
intergrowth of the minerals.
The jointing is widely spaced, as a rule, and no difficulty is found
in obtaining blocks of any required size. The stone is quarried by
drilling and blasting. The rough blocks are used for cyclopean
masonry or are dressed to dimensions, while the liner material goes
to the crushing plant which has been erected near the quarries. In
the spring of 1913, work was in progress at two places.
The average product of the quarries may be described as a
grayish or brownish gray gneiss of medium to fine texture. The
feldspars range from .5 mm to .3 mm in diameter. The composi-
tion is that of a normal biotite granite, with microcline as the chief
alkali feldspar. The feldspar and quartz are in nearly eciuidimen-
sional grains, closely crowded, but not interpenetrating, as in some
of 'the stronger granites. The even granular type seems to break
diown more readily under the weather than the irregular grained
Yonkers, but at this place there is little evidence of physical dis-
Physical tests. The Yonkers gneiss from the Dinnan cj[uarry, of
probably similar character to the stone in Ihe new quarries, was
tested by J. L. Davis, of the New York City Board of Water Sup-
ply. Two samples showed : specific gravity 2.64 ; ratio of absorp-
tion .30 per cent and .39 per cent; porosity .87 per cent and i.oi
130 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
per cent; weight for each culjic foot 163.3 '^ii'^l ^^i pounds; per-
centage of water absorbed .30. The ratio of absorption and poros-
ity are considerably higher than the figures obtained on the Yonkers
gneiss of the Hackett quarries, which are given elsewhere.
THE HARRISON DIORITE
The Harrison diorite covers an area of several square miles
within the towns of JNIamaroneck, Rye and Harrison, Westchester
county. It forms two nearly parallel belts striking northeast and
southwest, of which the easterly one extends along the sound from
Port Chester to Milton Point and the westerly one, 2 or 3 miles
inland, from the Connecticut line to near Larchmont station. The
belts are only about a mile wide at most and show intrusive con-
tacts with the Manhattan schist. Across the Connecticut border,
they unite with a large area of the same rock that is known there
as the Danbur}^ granodiorite.
The rock has a well-marked gneissoid texture, which indicates
that it was intruded before the igneous and sedimentary formations
of this section were metamorphosed. The date of the intrusion,
therefore, is earlier than the period of folding that came at the
close of the Paleozoic and later than the Manhattan schist. The
diorite resembles in composition the more acid members of the
Cortlandt series, but its foliation indicates a separate and prior
period of formation, for the Cortlandt rocks are practically un-
Strictly speaking, the rock is a granodiorite, as in its general
development, it shows affinity Avith the granites through the presence
of quartz, and considerable alkali-feldspar. The quartz is in fine
grains and has a smoky color. The feldspar includes a white
plagioclase of andesine to labradorite composition and a nearly
colorless microcline. Besides the fine granular feldspar of the
groundmass, there are quite frequently porphyritic individuals which
have been compressed into lenses or aiigen. These are made up of
twin crystals. They measure up to an inch or so long and half that
in width, but are more commonly of smaller dimensions. The
longer axis and the twinning planes are parallel to the rock foliation.
Biotite is the chief ferro-magnesian constituent, but is supplemented
by a little hornblende. The biotite is plentiful, in scaly aggregates
that interleave the quartz and feldspar. Parallel to the foliation
thus produced, the rock breaks more or less readily and the result-
ing surface is always much darker than the fractures across the
foliation. Of smaller importance is garnet Which appears, in
Harrison diorite, characteristic foliated structure. Quarry Mamaroneck.
Fordham gneiss, banded by lighter granitic material. Dublin quarry,
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK I3I
reddish grains, of irregular form, scattered through the ground-
mass ; the grains are not conspicuous as they are seldom over 5 mm
The color of the diorite is dark gray, with a bluish tint. The
hammered surface, which is the usual finish, shows lighter and is
The quarry operated by Faillace Brothers, of Mamaroneck, is on
the north side of the New Haven Railroad, and a little west of the
village. It is in the western of the two parallel belts. In the spring
of 1912, it was the only active quarry in the diorite.
The quarry is situated on the side of a low ridge, which has
a northeasterly trend parallel to the general strike of the country
rocks. The face is about 200 feet long, falling to 30 feet at either
end. There is no sheet structure, Ibut a system of discontinuous
joints, 6 or 8 feet apart, dips at a low angle to the south, parallel
to the surface. The principal jointing strikes and dips with the
foliation, that is, strikes northeast and dips northwest at an angle
of 65°. There are also cross-fractures, but they maintain no
The rock is a dark, very biotitic variety of the diorite, but rather
more uniform in appearance than the average rock, and fairly
free of knots or streaks of any kind. It carries porphyritic feld-
spars, which are usually compressed into lenses, or completely
granulated, and which may reach an inch in maximum diameter.
The uncrushed individuals show simple twinning after the Carlsbad
law. The body of the rock has a fine grain, the quartz and feldspar
averaging about 2.5 mm across. Pink garnet is usually present in
small scattered granular aggregates that are noticeable but not
conspicuous. The rock has a fresh appearance which is confirmed
by negative tests for carbonates with dilute hydrochloric acid.
The quarry is equipped with two derricks. There is a crusher
for using the waste. The principal product is rough and dressed
blocks for building purposes, foundations, walls etc. The dressed
material, for the most part, is finished with the patent-hammer.
The stone is well suited for practically all purposes that do not
require a light color or a fine finish. It is not susceptible, of course,
to polishing. The waste is sold for. riprap or crushed at the
The Campbell quarry, which is the only one in the vicinity men-
tioned by Eckel, has not been worked in the last four years. It is
132 NEW YORK ■ STATE MUSEUM
situated along the highway, just north of Larchmont station. As
the vicinity is now a residential section, it is doubtful if work will
again be started.
The diorite is here massive or slightly foliated, and of lighter color
than the average. It shows efifects of weathering in iron discolora-
tion and clouding of feldspars. Pegmatitic segregations of the
constituents are noticeable in places. The foliation strikes northeast
and dips about 55° northwest, conforming to which is the principal
The product of the quarry is stated to have been about 1000 cubic
yards a year, mostly dressed stone.
A quarry, owner unknown, is situated in the interval between the
Campbell and Faillace quarries, southwest of Mamaroneck. It
was not in operation in the spring of 1913, and apparently had been
abandoned for several years. It shows a face 100 feet long on the
strike of the diorite and from 20 to 35 feet high, with a width of
50 feet. The structural features resemble those at the Faillace
quarry. The rock is a dark gneissoid type, quite uniform as to
composition and appearance. Pegmatite in small segregations and
stringers is the only variation at all noticeable. There is no equip-
ment on the property. The product seems to have been mainly
THE FORDHAM BANDED GNEISS
The Fordham gneiss is a variable rock, or rather an assemblage
of more or less contrasting types, which spread over an extensive
area on the east side of the Hudson. It occurs in several belts that
follow the general northeasterly structural trend and that have the
Harlem river as their approximate southern boundary. In southern
Westchester county, it borders the Yonkers on both sides, and a
small strip continues along the eastern edge of the main Yonkers
area to its northern end. Another belt is exposed along the Hudson
from the Harlem river northward, occupying most of the first line
of ridges that parallel the river.
The Fordham is a banded gneiss, in which respect it differs from
the Yonkers. This banding is caused by variation in mineral com-
position, the lighter bands having less biotite than the darker ones.
Some light bands are made up of nearly pure quartz, but usually
there is a large proportion of feldspar. In the main, the rock may
be classified as a biotite gneiss, composed of quartz, feldspar and
biotite in fluctuating amounts. The feldspars are orthoclase, micro-
cline and an acid plagioclase, the latter having the characteristics
usually of oligoclase. The color is grayish and averages darker
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK I33.
than the Yonkers, owing to the larger proportion of biotite. The
texture indines to finely granular, except when injected by coarse
With respect to the other gneisses and igneous rocks of this
section, the Fordham occupies a basal position, so that its early
Precambric age seems established. It is clearly intruded by the
Yonkers. As it is made up largely of sedimentary material, it may
be classed as Grenville, which is the position assigned to it by
The sedimentary derivation of the gneiss is strongly suggested
by the regularity and persistence of the banded structure, which
resembles true stratification. Further evidence of this origin is
found in the gradation into quartzite that is observable in places,
and also by the bands, streaks and irregular masses of calcareous
material which are included within the formation. These inclusions
become of considerable importance in the northern extent of the
Fordham and are seen not infrequently in Westchester county.
The banding of the gneiss is referable in greater part to variations
in the original sediments which are believed to have been of the
nature of impure limestones, shales and shaly sandstones.
Granitic and pegmatitic injections have taken place in parts of
the Fordham along the planes of foliation. The igneous material
may form thin bands or veins that alternate more or less regularly
with the gneiss, with sharp contacts ; or it may impregnate the
body of the gneiss itself. Occasional dikes of these rocks cut across
Physical character and composition. The gneiss is medium to
dark gray in color, with a pinkish tone when there is much granitic
mixture. The banding is its most striking feature. By reason of
the parallel arrangement of the biotite, the dark bands partake of
a certain degree of schistosity, cleaving or breaking rather readily
along the foliation. The most persistent joints follow the foliation.
These are variably spaced, from a few inches apart, where the
gneiss has been crumpled or shattered, to several feet in the un-
The texture of the gneiss is fairly even but extremely fine. The
diameter of the feldspar particles ranges from .25 to 3 mm, and
the quartz is only slightly larger. The feldspar in most places shows
incipient kaolinization, but otherwise there is little alteration notice-
able. The biotite is somewhat bleached and the iron set free is
segregated in the cracks and sutures. Muscovite and hornblende
are usually present in small amounts.
134 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
An average sample of Fordham gneiss taken from the Nichols
quarry, showed a specific gravity of 2.66. The ratio of absorption
was .165 per cent and pore space .438 per cent.
Quarry development. There are only a few active quarries in
the Fordham belts. The variability and foliated structure of the
gneiss operate against its extended use as building material. Still
the Dublin and Hastings quarries have furnished considerable build-
ing stone, selected from the coarsely jointed ledges, which has given
good satisfaction so far as concerns durability. Its principal sale
is in rough blocks for foundation work and crushed for concrete
and roads. As a road material it is rather inferior, owing to its
tendency to split in platy pieces.
There are quarry sites at Uniontown, Bryn Mawr, Lowerre and
Fordham, from which no stone has been taken in recent years.
The Uniontown quarry, according to Eckel, was worked for rough
stone for one of the Warburton avenue bridges. It yielded a con-
torted gneiss inferior to that worked in the present quarries.
Near Bryn Mawr, two small openings in the Fordham are found
on Palmer avenue, near Fort Field reservoir. The eastermost is
stated by Eckel to yield a crumpled, poor grade of stone. The
westerly opening shows a better quality which is exemplified in the
walls and gatehouse of the reservoir. Some of the rock was crushed
The Lowerre quarries were opened in 1898. The gneiss here
shows granite veinings and is intersected by a pegmatite dike.
Rough foundation stone has been the principal product.
The Fordham quarries were situated just south of that place
and west of the Harlem railroad. They furnished crushed stone
mostly, used for railroad ballast. Their sites are now occupied by
The Reilly quarry, owned and for many years operated by
Patrick Reilly, is one of the more prominent ones for the production
of building stone. It is situated at Dublin, southwest of Tarrytown,
about i^ miles east of the river. For the last three years the
property has been leased to Thomas Murphy of Irvington.
The rock at this place is a hard, banded gray gneiss with a
considerable proportion of igneous material. Seams and bunches
of granite and pegmatite are common. The foliation and banding
strike N. 30° E. and dip 80° southeast. The bedding joints are
rather widely spaced, so that thick blocks are obtainable. A hori-
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK I35
zontal system of joints is present. The quarry was formerly worked
in two faces, one 30 feet and the other 50 feet high, but of late
years the stone has been taken out without much method. The
opening is about 200 feet long and has been extended about an
equal distance back from the highway. The stone is hauled to
Irvington, a distance of 2 miles, for shipment. It is chiefly sold on
contract, so that operations are somewhat irregular.
The principal structures in which the stone from this quarry has
entered are the Rockefeller and Archbold residences at Tarrytown.
Duell & Holloway quarry
The firm of Duell & Holloway, of Tarrytown, owns a quarry
near Glenville, 2 miles southeast of the former town, which appears
to be situated in the Fordham gneiss. The rock is fine grained,
grayish and irregularly banded. The darker seams contain abund-
ant biotite and hornblende, the latter more prominent than is usual
with this gneiss. The texture is firmly knit, almost like that of
granite, and the stone is hard and tough. It shows no marked
tendency to split into tabular blocks, as in fact the foliation, so
marked in the average Fordham, is quite obscure in the hand
specimens from this quarry. The feldspars which are mainly
under 2.5 mm diameter, belong mostly to orthoclase and oligoclase,
the former cloudy and micasized, and the latter less altered, but
showing effects of compression.
The banded structure and foliation strike N. 50° E. and dip
about 30° southeast. A system of nearly vertical joints is very
closely spaced so as to make the product more suitable for crush-
ing than for building purposes. The horizontal set of joints is
less in evidence. Granite seams occur irregularly parallel to the
The quarry opening extends about 900 feet in the longer direc-
tion. There is little method apparent in the operations, as the
principal object has been to break down the stone at the least pos-
sible expense without reference to the production of dimension
material. The output is employed mainly for crushed stone which
is sold in the vicinity.
The Nichols quarry, situated southeast of Hastings, on the road
to Unionville, is a continuation of the old Lefurgy's quarry which
at the time of Eckel's report was one of the principal quarries in
the Fordham gneiss. The quarry is worked by W. H. Nichols,
136 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
of Hastings. The opening extends about 300 feet on the strike of
the gneiss, which is nearly north and south; it is about 100 feet
wide and the face on the west side about 30 feet. The quality
of the rock exposed in the quarry is somewhat variable. The best
quality is found in the west side where a massive gray gneiss is
quarried for building stone, in blocks that measure up to 10 feet
long and 4 to 6 feet in section. Through the middle of the quarry
runs a band about 18 feet wide of a darker, seamed, or contorted
gneiss. There is more or less granitic admixture with the gneiss,
but this is not usually injurious to the strength or appearance of
Besides the bedding joints that run with the foliation and dip
80° east, there are two well-developed sets at right angles to the
foliation, the one dipping 80° south and the other 35*^ north.
Microscopic examination of the gneiss from this quarry shows
the mineral composition to be like that described for the typical
Fordham. The texture is even grained for the most part, and
very fine, with indistinct banding. The feldspar and quartz par-
ticles average under 1.5 mm and the biotite scales are of about the
same diameter. There is only an occasional shred of hornblende.
Among the accessory constituents is zoisite in small rounded grains.
Sulphides are absent. The only mark of alteration is a slight
clouding of the feldspar, due to incipient kaolinization. The speci-
mens showed no effervescence with muriatic acid.
A hand derrick and Steam drill comprise the quarry equipment.
The blocks are loosened from the ledge by drilling deep holes and
loading with black powder, after which they are broken up by hand
drilling. The stone is sold rough and dressed for building and
foundation work. The waste is sold as crushed stone for macadam.
A quarry in Tuckahoe has been operated for several years past
by Nicholas Fenano. The rock is a compact bluish or grayish
gneiss of the Fordham type, but somewhat contorted and broken
by numerous joints. The opening is about 200 feet long on the
strike of the gneiss and shows a face of 40^ feet. The strike of
the beds is north and south and the dip vertical. Most of the
product has been sold as crushed stone, the larger blocks only being
utilized for foundation or building work. The ledge has been
worked nearly down to the street level and it is probable that the
quarry will soon be converted to other use.
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK I37
THE MANHATTAN SCHIST
The Manhattan schist which underhes the island of Manhattan
and extends northward into the Bronx and Westchester county
has no great importance as a quarry stone. Its foHation, variable
composition and thinly jointed character are against its general use
for architectural purposes or for cut stone, though it has been em-
ployed quite extensively for walls and rough masonry where
readily available. In a few places, specially in the vicinity of plu-
tonic intrusives which have invaded and injected the schist, thereby
rendering it more massive and compact, it has found some sale for
The schist, like the Fordham gneiss, is a metamorphosed sedi-
ment ; in its original form probably a shale. In the field there
is a close resemblance between the two, though stratigraphically
they are separated by both the Lowerre quartzite and the Inwood
limestone. A comparison of typical samples of the schist and
gneiss shows, however, that the former is more micaceous and
carries less of the feldspars than the Fordham. The mica in both
is mostly biotite, but in the Manhattan schist there is also con-
siderable muscovite. The feldspathic constituents are generally
subordinate to the cjuartz.
The color of the ^lanhattan schist is gray, medium to dark, the
lightest being the injected phases. Foliation is marked, owing to
the abundance of mica, and follows apparently the original stratifi-
cation. Crumpled and thin- jointed types are common.
The schist is intruded by dikes and small bosses of granite and
occasionally of diorite and more basic rocks. In their vicinity,
but especially near the granitic intrusives, it is likely to change con-
siderably in appearance and composition. Through the injection
by granite, it develops into a feldspathic rock which resembles a
banded gneiss or, when the schist is more thoroughly absorbed,
it becomes fairly uniform and cjuite massive, not unlike the granite
itself. vSuch mixed phases are too numerous to require separate
mention. Merrill has noted their occurrence also in connection with
the diorite intrusions north and east of New Rochelle.
Besides mica, quartz and feldspar, the schist contains a number
of accessory minerals like garnet, sillimanite, titanite and mag-
netite. The texture is generally fine, even granular, but may be-
come porphyritic near igneous conta-ts through the development
of large feldspars'. The rock possesses no features that are objec-
tionable to its general employment for construction purposes, ex-
cept its somewhat variable appearance and foliation. The mica
138 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
which is in the scales arranged parallel to the foliation makes it
readily cleavable and is a source of weakness if proper care is not
used in laying the stone. It should not be placed, of course, on
edge, as the effects of water and frost are greatly accentuated
if the foliation is thus exposed.
There are no permanent quarries in the Manhattan schist. Most
use of this stone has been made in foundation and retaining walls
on Manhattan island and much of the material has been taken from
excavations on building sites. The local operations, therefore, do
not call for special mention.
GRANITE NEAR RAMAPO, ROCKLAND COUNTY
The belt of Precambric gneisses which enters southwestern Rock-
land county from New Jersey, forming the massive ridges of the
Ramapo mountains, contains several quarries around Sufifern and
Ramapo which have supplied building stone for local uses and to
some extent for shipment. The gneisses are pink or gray and
carry hornblende or biotite as the iron-magnesia mineral. In gen-
eral composition they resemble granite, being composed mainly of
acid feldspar and quartz. They range from foliate, thinly bedded
types to heavily jointed massive examples. The latter, of course,
are better adapted for all constructional work, in which they take
the place of true granite. They are intersected by vertical joints
of which there is usually a system running nearly north-south and
a second at about right angles.
The quarry sites are situated along the Erie Railroad between
Suffern and Ramapo. One of the principal openings, but idle
for many years, lies on the ridge south of Ramapo and west of
the railroad tracks. The rock is a hornblende gneiss of massive
character, reddish in color. Smock mentions the quarry as having
furnished building and monumental stone, as well as material for
many of the Erie Railroad bridges.
A quarry near Hillburn was worked by Rice Brothers up to the
year 1904. The output consisted of building, monumental and
GRANITE AND GNEISS IN ORANGE COUNTY
Several granite intrusions are found in the southwestern part
of Orange county, near the New Jersey state line. Two of these
constitute rather large bosses that rise into the conspicuous twin
peaks Mounts Adam and Eve, at the edge of the " Drowned Lands "
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK I39
of the Wallkill river. Both are made up of a coarse hornblende
granite, somewhat gneissoid in places and showing pegmatitic and
aplitic variations. Mount Eve, the larger boss, occupies an area
about 2 miles long and a mile wide. Mount Adam is a nearly round
mass, about one-half of a mile in diameter. There are small knobs
of the same granite near Big island, just northeast of Mount Eve
and also in the section southwest, along the general axis of the
Pochuck mountain, a broad ridge which lies principally in New
Jersey, consists of Precambric gneiss broken here and there by
granite. On the northeastern end, the part within New York
State, the easterly slopes are formed by a coarse, quite massive,
hornblende granite, but the western half is made up of biotite
gneiss. The granite is lighter in color than that just mentioned
but its mineral composition is similar and it may be of related
The section of the Highlands in the vicinity of these intrusions
possesses much interest to the geologist. The contact zones between
the granites and the bordering limestones are especially notable and
have long been a favorite collecting ground from which much ma-
terial has found its way into museums. The geological features
of this section are set forth in numerous papers and reports, the
more recent being those by Kemp and Hollick ^ and by Ries.^
Quarries on Mount Adam and Mount Eve
Practically the same kind of granite is exposed on the two knobs,
Mount Adam and Mount Eve, and they belong no doubt to a single
intrusion, though separated by a belt of crystalline limestone.
Mount Eve, the larger knob, rises to an altitude of 1057 feet above
sea level; its greatest axis in the direction northeast-southwest is
about 2 miles. Mount Adam, which is really a spur on its western
flank, measures little more than one-half of a mile in diameter,
with a summit about loo feet below that of Mount Eve. Smaller
knobs of the granite are found at Big island, just north of Mount
Eve and on the eastern and southern borders of the mountain.
The granite resembles that from Pochuck mountain in general
character and composition. It belongs to the hornblende granites.
1 The Granite at Mounts Adam and Eve and Its Contact Phenomena,
N. Y. Acad. Sci. Annals VII, 638.
2 Report on the Geology of Orange County, N. Y. State Museum Rep't 49,
140 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
but contains some biotite. It has a coarse texture, as seen at the
quarries, and in color is a medium gray with bhiish or greenish
tints which arise from the variable appearance of the feldspar
crystals. These measure from 5 to 15 mm in diameter. Though
generally massive, the granite shows local phases characterized by a
parallel or gneissic arrangement of the constituents, as is well ex-
hibited on the north side of Mount Eve. Pegmatitic variations are
rather frequent, especially on Mount Adam, where also the normal,
coarse, grayish granite gives way in places to a finer grained and
much darker dioritic rock. This lack of uniformity constitutes a
serious drawback to the opening of quarries in many parts of the
The quarry localities are on the north slope of Mount Adam and
the western slope of Mount Eve. The Mount Adam quarry,
according to Smock, was opened in 1889 by the Amount Adam
Granite Co. of Middletown. It has long since been abandoned.
The workings have a total length of 250 feet arid a face from 20 to
30 feet high. There are two grades of rock exposed, the one con-
sisting of the usual coarse hornblende granite, and the other of
finer grain with little hornblende, forming streaks and patches in
the first. Feldspathic and pegmatitic seams are present. The joint-
ing is divided into three systems. Two strike north-south and dip
about 70° in opposite directions, the third strikes N. 45° E. and
dips 55° southeast. No equipment is found on the property. The
quarry lies about one-half of a mile north of the railroad to which
the stone was formerly hauled over a private road.
The Mount Eve quarries were opened about 1890, at the same
time as those on Pochuck mountain and by the same company.
They are situated a little way up the western slope, in the notch
between the two knobs. They have likewise been abandoned and
the equipment removed from the property. The granite is less
broken than on Mount Adam and shows riiore uniformity of
character. It was worked quite extensively for dimension stone
which was shipped to Orange, N. J., and other places. The work-
ings at present are so heavily overgrown with bushes as scarcely
to permit inspection. The nearest point of shipment on the rail-
road is about i^j miles distant.
Microscopic characters. The petrography of the granite is
described in detail in the paper by Kemp and HoUick, already
cited, from which the following information is abstracted. The
principal dark mineral is hornblende, but there is more or less biotite
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK I4I
associated with it, as well as some pyroxene. The feldspars in-
clude orthoclase, microcline and microperthite among the alkali
varieties. Plagioclase is represented in amount quite equal to the
others, so that the composition approaches a diorite. The quartz
carries abundant inclusions but otherwise is not especially remark-
able. Less important constituents are titanite, zircon, magnetite
and allanite, the last being quite common in the granite from both
Pochuck Mountain quarries
The principal quarry working in the Pochuck granite area is situ-
ated just north of the State boundary and on the east side of the
mountain. It is reached by the branch railroad that connects Pine
Island on the main line with Glenwood, N. J. It was opened about
1890. The property was developed and worked by the Empire
State Granite Co., but has been inoperative for the last four or
five years. Building stone and paving blocks were quarried. Among
the structures in which the granite has been used are the post office
and the Hinchcliffe brewery at Patterson, N. J.
The quarry is opened for a distance of 200 feet along the moun-
tain and has a face from 30 to 40 feet high. The excavation is
insufficient to show the general rock structures. There appears,
however, to be no well-defined sheeting.
A second smaller quarry has been opened a little south of this
property, but is also idle at present. It belongs to P. J. Carlin of
New York City. The granite is of the same general character as
that in the Empire State quarry.
The granite from this locality has a coarse texture, varying from
massive to slightly foliate, and a pink body that is mottled with
gray and black. The general color effect is pinkish gray of medium
shade. The feldspars measure about 10 mm and the black aggre-
gates of hornblende and biotite from 5 to 10 mm in diameter.
The granite in hand specimen shows no weathering or discoloration.
Microscopic examination. The feldspars, which are the most
prominent constituents, include microcline, microperthite and ortho-
clase of pink color and a whitish soda-lime variety, all in practically
unaltered state though somewhat fractured by compression. Quartz
is next in amount. The hornblende greatly predominates over
biotite and is a strongly pleochroic, dark green to brown variety,
showing slight chloritization. Large crystals of titanite are included
in the dark aggregates of hornblende and biotite. Zircon, apatite,
magnetite and biotite are present in small quantity. The absence of
carbonates is indicated by hydrochloric acid tests.
142 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
Chemical analysis. The following analysis was reported by the
Empire State Granite Co. in reply to a request from the State
Museum dated in 1904. The analysis was made in the laboratories
of Simonds & Wainwright of New York :
FeO j ^-42
MgO 1. 15
Physical tests. Compression tests of the granites from this
quarry, made by Prof. P. J. Carlin, showed an ultimate strength
of 23,500 pounds to the square inch in one sample and 22,900 pounds
in a second sample. Gravity and absorption tests by the writer
gave: Specific gravity, 2.74; ratio of absorption, .148 per cent;
pore space .402 per cent.
West Point gneiss quarries
The notable collection of buildings at West Point affords an
example of the architectural use of local stone to good advantage,
an example that might be profitably followed more frequently per-
haps than is usual in this section, although there are not a few
instances of the adaptation of native quarry materials to be found in
the Highland region. The larger structures at-West Point, including
the new chapel, the power plant, riding hall and several others,
are built of dark gray gneiss that is found on the side of the ridge
to the west of the academy grounds. The quarries are worked only
as the need develops from time to time, being used only to supply
the local rec[uirements. There are several openings, but the prin-
cipal one from which building stone has been quarried of late years
is near the north end of the ridge and somewhat above the main
level of the academy site. The gneiss is quite fresh at the surface
which shows the efifects of glacial erosion in deep scorings and
polished surfaces. It is a coarsely jointed biotite gneiss, veined and
broken by a more massive granite. The two rocks vary much in
proportion from place to place and there is every gradation between
Porphyritic granite. Horicon, Warren county
Pegmatitic granite. Orange county
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK I43
the thinly fohate gneiss and the massive granite. Within the Hmits
of one quarry, however, material is found that is fairly uniform.
It fills all the requirements for rock faced ashlar, as it is strong,
durable and quite attractive if somewhat somber of tone.
Pegmatitic granite in Orange county
Within the Precambric belt of Orange county, which includes
most of the Highlands area west of the Hudson river, occur numer-
ous outcrops of coarse, reddish granite of pegmatitic nature. This
rock is dififerentiated from the surrounding gneisses that form the
main mass of the Highlands by its coarser grain and also by its
more massive appearance, never showing the well-developed par-
allel arrangement characteristic of the latter. The feldspars reach
a diameter of an inch or even more when uncrushed, and are
inclosed in a finer mixture of granular feldspar and quartz, so as
to lend the aspect of a porphyritic rock. The feldspar in the ground-
mass is the result largely of the breaking down of the larger in-
dividuals under compression, the uncrushed remnants having a
rounded or lenticular cross-section. The predominant variety is
red microcline, but there is also more or less of white or greenish
plagioclase. Of dark silicates the rqck carries very little ordinarily.
On the other hand, magnetite is a common ingredient, and epidote
appears quite often as an alteration product. By reason of the
varied colors imparted by the feldspar, magnetite and epidote the
granite not infrequently possesses ornamental qualities which make
it serviceable for decorative work and it has been employed locally
for that purpose in fireplaces, mantels etc. Unfortunately it does
not occur in large enough bodies to be quarried on a commercial
The granite may be seen in the form of stringers, dikes and
irregular bodies which intersect the gneiss and are probably ofif-
shoots of some magma that has penetrated the country rocks from
below at a time when the metamorphism of the latter had been
completed. The same magma is possibly represented in the bosses
of granite outcropping on Mount Adam, Mount Eve and Pochuck
mountain in southern Orange county. The magnetite mines are
situated mainly in belts of gneiss that have been injected by the
granite, and afford good specimens of the fresh material. At the
Forest of Dean mine back of West Point a very attractive variety
occurs in contact with the magnetite, and there is a large amount
of it on the mine dump.
144 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
THE DARK COLORED, BASIC ROCKS
BASIC ROCKS IN THE ADIRONDACKS
Traps or diabase dikes occur in great numbers in the main
Adirondack region, though they are very unequally distributed.
They occur with greatest frequency in the eastern and northern
parts, embraced in Essex, southwestern Clinton and southern Frank-
lin counties. As they were intruded during the Precambric they
are not found outside the area underlain by the crystalline forma-
tions — the gneisses, schists, crystalline limestones and plutonic
igneous masses ; but they may be looked for in any of the rocks
The Precambric area of Essex and Clinton counties includes
numerous examples of the dikes, so many that their separate occur-
rence has hardly seemed worthy of note in the geological reports
dealing with this section. They are particularly in evidence in the
vicinity of the iron mines at Hammondville, Mineville, Ausable
Forks, Lyon Mountain and in the Saranac valley ; but are probably
no more frequent there than elsewhere in the same region; they
are simply better exposed. The writer has noted more than a
hundred such dikes in these districts. They all present very similar
features of physical development, consisting typically of feldspar,
pyroxene and magnetite with the peculiar diabase texture which
arises from the inclusion of the pyroxene within the meshes formed
by the interlacing feldspar laths. As a rule they are fairly fresh at
the surface and give a metallic ring when struck with the hammer.
They have the tabular form characteristic of fissure intrusions and
are seldom more than a few feet thick though persistent on the
line of strike. Their prevailing direction is from north to north-
east in conformity with the main structural trend of the inclosing
rocks. The trap is well suited for road material on account of
its toughness and wearing qualities, but the occurrences so far dis-
covered are scarcely of sufficient size to justify quarry work. Dikes
over 15 feet thick are very rare and of those seen by the writer a
thickness of 30 or 40 feet represents about the maximum. They
have a steep dip, usually nearly vertical, so that their quarrying
would be difficult and relatively expensive.
A more available material for local road building in the Adiron-
dacks is found in the areas of gabbro and basic syenite. The latter,
normally a feldspathic rock, develops in places into a very dark
material with abundant iron-magnesia minerals and magnetite,
which closely resembles and even grades into the gabbros. The
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW A'ORK I45
latter are almost identical in mineral composition with the diabase
trap. Like these they are very tough resistant rocks, but normally
are coarser grained and consequently would not wear so evenly
under abrasive conditions. The gabbros occur in dikes, larger than
those in which the diabase is found, but more frecpently they form
rounded and irregular masses or stocks from a few hundred square
feet to several acres and even miles in area. They are very common
in Essex county within the Lake Champlain drainage area where
their occurrence in part is well shown on the Elizabethtown-Port
Henry geologic sheet. -^
The texture of the gabbros and syenites varies from coarse to
fine, the finer sorts being on the borders of the areas, where the
magmas were subject to cjuick chill. Li these border places are to
be found the most suitable material for crushed stone. Some of
the gabbros exhibit textures very similar to the trap, their feldspar
being in lath-shaped crystals which form a network that incloses
the pyroxene in the meshes. Such border phases are practically
ecjuivalent to the diabases and should prove equally serviceable
as materials for crushed stone of the best quality.
Numerous chemical analyses of the Adirondack traps, gabbros
and syenites have been published in the geologic reports of this
LITTLE FALLS, HERKIMER COUNTY
An outlier of the Adirondack crystalline rocks occurs in the
Mohawk valley at Little Falls where quarries for the supply of
crushed stone and, to a smaller extent, of building material have
been operated for many years. The situation is very advantageous
for extraction and marketing of stone as the area is crossed by
two main railroad lines and the Erie canal, and there are bare rock
ledges close at hand which afford good quarry sites. The rocks
are principally adapted for road, concrete and foundation work,
being rather dark for use in buildings. They include a fine-grained
syenite which occupies most of the area, reddish granite and trap,
the last occurring in a dike over 100 feet wide — the largest known
in the southern Adirondacks.
The Little Falls outlier has been mapped and described by H. P.
Gushing in connection with his report on the " Geology of the Little
Falls Quadrangle " (N. Y. State Museum Bulletin 'j']). It consists
of a single area of these Precambric crystallines that outcrops within
1 Included in N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 138.
2 See especially Museum bulletins 95 and 138.
146 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
the gorge of the Mohawk at that place and extends eastward for
nearly 2 miles; the syenite forms the first lines of cliffs on either
side, rising to a maximum of about 200 feet above the river, above
which is a second steep scarp consisting of the exposed edges of
Ordovician limestones whose base rests unconformably upon the
The Little Falls syenite has a dark green to nearly black color,
changing to yellowish or brownish on weathered surfaces. The
texture is mostly fine granular, the result of mashing after intrusion.
There are occasional feldspar " augen " in the midst of the com-
minuted minerals which may be taken as evidence that it once
possessed a much coarser grain. Over much of the area it has
a mashed gneissoid appearance and is thinly jointed, the joints caus-
ing a platy structure in places like that of a schist. There has been
some infiltration of iron oxides along the joints and locally these
extend into the body of the rock, filling the minute cracks and
pore spaces and changing the color to a brick red.
In composition, the rock varies considerably from place to place
and in many samples of the outcropping portion shows a wide
departure from the syenitic type. In the eastern section, the mass
develops very dark basic phases which are close to gabbro in min-
eral composition and in the hand specimen much resemble a fine-
grained gabbro. Such phases occur along the tracks of the Dolge-
ville railroad, near the quarries of the Syenite Trap Rock Co. The
feldspar constituents, however, belong to the alkali varieties, with
subordinate amounts of lime-soda feldspar of andesine or oligoclase
type, so that the material can not be classed as gabbro. Quartz is
also present, as it is elsewhere in considerable abundance. The
dark minerals include hornblende, hypersthene, biotite and garnet.
Among minor ingredients are apatite, quartz, titanite, magnetite and
pyrite. In the more acid phases, there is about 75 per cent of
feldspar, chiefly microperthite, about 10 per cent of quartz and be-
tween 10 and 15 per cent of the iron-magnesia minerals. The basic
examples carry as much as 50 per cent of the latter ingredients.
Throughout the exposure occur scattered patches and bodies of
a reddish granitic rock, some of which seem to be in the nature of
inclusions, rather than dikes. Such are found in the north face of
the Trap Rock Company's quarry. Cushing regards the red granite
found in the western section around Little Falls as intrusive in
QUARRY INIATERIALS OF NEW YORK I47
Chemical analysis. The following is an analysis of the Little
Falls syenite extracted from N. Y. State Museum Bulletin 115, the
analyst being E. W. Morley :
• AI.O3 16.15
CaO 2 . 30
The analysis is undoubtedly based on samples of the more quartz-
Physical tests. Numerous tests of the Little Falls syenite have
been made by the bureau of research, State Department of High-
ways. The following table gives the maximum and minimum and
average results of eleven different tests :
Maximum Minim.um Average
Specific gravity 2.93 2.75 2.80
Weight pounds for each cubic foot 183 172 175
Absorption, pounds for each cubic foot .21 .09 . 15
Per cent of wear 4 2.6 3.3
Hardness 18.4 17.8 18. i
Toughness 14 8.5 11. 7
Diabase dike. The dike that has been mentioned as intersecting
the syenite is found in a slight depression of the surface about
1000 feet west of the Syenite Trap Rock quarry. It shows also in
the face of the cliffs above the Dolgeville railroad cut and can be
traced thence northeasterly toward the Little Falls road, but is
concealed near the road itself if it reaches that far. The dike has
been intruded along the course of the main jointing which here
is N. 30° E. ; the map in Cushing's bulletin, however, indicates the
strike as nearly east and west. Within the exposed section, it
measures about 125 feet in width, which may be taken as about
the actual thickness. It thus could be quarried without difficulty.
It ranges from very fine, even, glassy texture near the contact to
a rather coarse grain with porphyritic feldspars an inch or so long
in the interior of the body. Though somewhat altered in the out-
crop, pieces give a metallic ring when struck, like a hard trap. Its
mineral composition may be described as consisting of plagioclase,
augite and magnetite, with secondary serpentine and chlorite.
148 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
Syenite Trap Rock Company's quarry
The Syenite Trap Company's quarry is situated i^ miles east
of Little Falls on the north side of the river and New York Central
tracks. It was opened about ten years ago on an extensive scale
for the purpose of supplying crushed stone for highway, canal and
railroad construction. The present quarry cut is nearly 1500 feet
long with a face of about 60 feet as a maximum. The stone is
quite massive in appearance and is less broken by joints than in
most of the exposure. It is extremely tough and resistant in the
quarry, showing qualities that fit it for heavy service. The crush-
ing plant is built on the side of the cliffs, the stone passing through
the successive crushers and screens by gravity into the storage bin
from which it can be loaded directly into cars. The plant has a
capacity of from 800 to 1000 tons a day.
An interesting feature, though of some inconvenience to quarry
operations, is the presence of numerous pot holes, both on top and
side of the: syenite cliffs, which attain a diameter of 30 or 40 feet
in some instances. They are filled with transported boulders and
pebbles of various rocks, many beautifully rounded and polished.
They occur up to 200 feet nearly above the bed of the present river.
A pot hole about 70 feet in diameter was encountered in the ex-
cavation for the new locks at Little Falls.
Little Falls Stone Company's quarry
The site of the Little Falls Stone Company's quarry is on the
south side of the Mohawk, opposite the quarries just described.
The syenite is exposed as a ledge for a distance of 800 feet in an
east-west direction, with a face about 50 feet high in the center,
sloping off somewhat toward either end. The rock is rather
variable in structure, ranging from a platy schistose type, badly
broken up, to a massive, heavily jointed material that has no definite
cleavage. The quarry was opened for the supply of crushed stone
for cement blocks. A large plant was erected near the quarry for
making blocks, but has not been operated for the last four years
and the quarries also have been idle during that time.
GREENFIELD, SARATOGA COUNTY
The Saratoga Trap Rock Co. has a quarry in the town of Green-
field, 3 miles northwest of Saratoga Springs. The rock is a fine-
grained diabase, occurring in a dike which strikes N. 20° E. and
extends across the line of the Delaware and Hudson Railroad
QUARRY MATERIALS OF XEW YORK I49
(Adirondack branch). The dike is notable for its continuity along
the strike, although its thickness is nowhere very great, being about
60 feet from wall to wall in the quarry opening. It can be traced
northward beyond the railroad by occasional exposures for over
one-half of a mile and finally branches into two or three smaller
dikes. The section south of the railroad is fully as long. The dike
stands nearly vertical and cuts through a garnetiferous schist.
The openings are just south of the railroad and east of the north-
south highway. An examination of the diabase under the micro-
scope shows that the mineral constituents are pyroxene, feldspar and
magnetite in the order of their importance. The minerals are
somewhat decomposed by weathering, though in hand specimen the
rock appears hard and has a metallic ring.
FORT ANN, WASHINGTON COUNTY
Several dikes of trap are found on the ridge east of the canal,
near Fort Ann. They are of small size, though their occurrence
so near shipping facilities has given them economic interest and
led to active quarrying in one case. The Champlain Stone and
Sand Co. operated a crushing plant for a short time about 1907.
The dikes are the usual diabase, with pyroxene, feldspar and
magnetite as the principal constituents. Specimens examined by
the writer showed slight decomposition but not sufficient probably
to affect materially the wearing quality of the ^tone for road uses.
THE CORTLANDT BASIC ROCKS
A great boss of igneous rocks, mainly of the dark basic kinds,
is found in northern Westchester county, just south of Peekskill.
It covers a large part of the town of Cortlandt, having an area of
about 25 square miles, rounded in outline and extending along the
Hudson river for some distance on its western border. The in-
trusion has been described at length by J. D. Dana and G. H. Wil-
liams. More recently G. Sherburne Rogers^ has published a very
detailed account of the geology and petrography of the rock series,
with many chemical analyses and a map showing the distribution
of the different types.
According to Rogers's investigations, the intrusives consist of a
complex of rocks of which the largest element is the norites, but
including also gabbro, pyroxenite, peridotite, hornblendite, dior-
1 Geology of the Cortlandt Series and Its Emery Deposits. N. Y. Acad.
Sci. Annals, v. xxi, 191 1.
150 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
ite and syenite. The variuus roek types are the differentiated
products of a hasic magma which was intruded in late Paleozoic
time. It is thought that the Mohegan granite may represent the
acid extreme of the series, although occupying a rather isolated
position to the northeast of the basic intrusives. At any rate the
granite has the same relations to the surrounding formations which
consist principally of Manhattan schist.
There are no active quarries within the area and the only min-
eral product now worked is emery, which is found in small lenses
and pockets near the borders. The rocks are too heavy and dark in
color for building stone. It would appear, however, from observa-
tions by the writer that there are numerous opportunities for the
quarrying of road material of good quality. The fine-grained
gabbros and norites particularly seem well adapted for the purpose,
being closely knit, tough materials, very similar to diabase in their
composition. The best ledges, however, are found in the interior
at some distance from the railroad and the Hudson river. The
rocks in places are cjuite heavily charged with pyrjtic minerals
as indicated by their rapid weathering with the formation of a
reddish clayey soil. The pyritic zones are probably localized and
do not seriously affect the quality of the material as a whole.
Analyses of representative types of the Cortlandt gabbros and
norites are given herewith. No. i is gabbro, southeast of Salt Hill,
H. T. Vulte, analyst. No. 2 is norite, i^^ miles south of Peekskill.
S. S. Rogers, analyst.
Fig. 12 Map of the trap outcrops in Rockland county, after Kiimmel.
I, Suffern; 2, West Nyack ; 3, Mt Ivy; 4 Rockland lake; 5, Nyack; 6, Haver-
straw quarry sites.
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK I5I
PALISADES DIABASE, ROCKLAND COUNTY
The Palisades of the Hudson are the outcropping edge of an
intrusion of diabase or trap, the largest anywhere in the State and,
by reason of its accesible position, the most valuable for the pro-
duction of crushed stone. The intrusion altogether is some 60 or
70 miles long north and south, and its width within the Rockland
county section ranges from one-eighth of a mile to over 2 miles.
The diabase is in the form of a sheet which has ascended along
the inclined beds of Triassic sandstone and shale. The dip of the
beds is toward the west and northwest at an angle of from 5° to
15°. In this direction the diabase soon disappears and becomes
buried under an increasing burden of sediments. The thickness of
the sheet is several hundred feet at least and in places may be
around 1000 feet. Although it follows in general the bedding of the
stratified rocks, it is observed in places to cut diagonally across the
beds for greater or less distances.
The trap exposure follows the shore line of the Hudson quite
closely from the New Jersey state line to Haverstraw. Here the
outcrop swings around to the west away from the river and after
continuing in that direction for some 4 miles, thins out or dis-
appears beneath the surface. In this part the sheet apparently cuts
across the bedded rocks at nearly right angles to their strike. The
exposure has been described and mapped very accurately by H. B.
The diabase varies more or less in texture from place to place,
but has a very uniform composition in which plagioclase, augite and
magnetite are predominant and olivine, pyrite. cjuartz and other
minerals are of minor importance. It is grayish to dark green in
color, and shows very little alteration. The grain is moderately
coarse, except near the upper and lower edges, where it is fine and
For many years the diabase has been extensively cjuarried for
crushed stone. It has also been worked to a limited extent for pav-
ing blocks and for building material, but the difticulty of cutting it
has prevented any marked development of these uses. As a road
metal it has long been recognized as the standard of quality. The
quarries around Haverstraw, Rockland lake and Xyack in recent
years have had an output annually of over 1,000,000 cubic yards of
1 X. Y. State Museum Annual Rep't 52. v. 2,. 1900..
NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
Tests of the trap by the bureau of research, State Department of
Highways, gave the following results on a number of samples :
Weight, pounds for each cubic
Water absorbed, pounds for
each cubic foot
Per cent of wear
2 . 1
In the near future the quarrying of trap from the face of the Pali-
sades will probably be discontinued, as the river front is to be incor-
porated in the Palisades Interstate Park.
The property of the Manhattan Trap Rock Co., on the southeast-
erly face of Hiook mountain, has already been taken over for pur-
poses of the park and the crushing plant dismantled. The other
quarries in this section are owned by the Rockland Lake Trap Co.,
the Clinton Point Stone Co. and the Haverstraw Crushed Stone Co.
They are still operative (1914) but it is understood that negotiations
for their purchase have been begun. With their acquisition the in-
dustry along the riverside, which is the most advantageously situ-
ated for the econO'mic production and shipment oi crushed trap will
come to a definite end. The supply then must co'me from some of
the inland quarries or from the New Jersey and Connecticut trap
areas, in either case probably at an increase in cost.
The present quarries are well equipped and capable of turning out
a large output at a low cost. The largest of them is owned by the
Rockland Lake Trap Co., where there is a face of 2000 feet and 500
feet or more high. The rock is broken down in enormous quantity
by drilling and blasting, loaded onto cars by steam shovels and
crushed in the plants at the riverside whence it is loaded into barges
for transport to New York and the other markets on the river and
LADENTOWN, ROCKLAND COUNTY
Trap is exposed over a considerable area south of Ladentown and
west of the branch railroad from Spring Valley to Haverstraw.
The area is in line with the course of the Palisades intrusion from
Haverstraw to Mount Ivy but is separated from the latter by a
stretch of over a mile in which the rock does not appear at the
surface. The trap also differs somewhat in appearance from the
Palisades diabase. As mapped by Kummel, the area measures
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 1 53
about 2 miles in maximum diameter from northeast to southwest
and is about i mile wide. It is thus sufficiently large to permit the
location of many quarries within its bounds, although as yet un-
developed. The rock is very fine-grained and is somewhat vesicular
in places ; it may be a surface development of the Palisades diabase.
SUFFERN, ROCKLAND COUNTY
Union Hill, near Suffern, consists of a mass of trap from one-
fourth to one-half of a mile in diameter. The rock is a fine-grained,
compact diabase of the same composition as the Palisades rock.
The Ramapo Trap Rock Co. has opened quarries in the exposure
for the production of crushed stone.
PORT RICHMOND, RICHMOND COUNTY
The southern end of the Palisades diabase is found on Staten
Island where the intrusion forms a low ridge that extends south-
southwest from Port Richmond. The exact limits of the area are
not well marked, but it probably is from one-fourth to one-half of
a mile wide and terminates somewhere near Linoleumville. Quar-
ries have been opened at Graniteville and Port Richmond. For the
last few years they have been inactive.
154 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
THE OCCURRENCE OF PEGMATITE IN NEW YORK
GENERAL FEATURES, FIELD RELATIONS AND USES OF
The coarsely textured modifications of granite that are called
pegmatites have a special interest that seems best to recognize here
by their separate description. This interest is connected not only
with their scientific features in regard to origin, methods of occur-
rence and mineral contents, but also with their industrial uses which
cover certain fields quite apart from those belonging to ordinary
granites. Pegmatites are sources of feldspar, quartz and other min-
erals of commercial importance.
The most striking physical character of pegmatites — their
coarseness of texture — is a relative one, but important in determin-
ing their utility. Almost every variation may be found in the field
between the coarser granites which are available for constructional
or ornamental stone to the coarsest *' giant " granites or pegmatites
in which the individual minerals attain dimensions of several feet
and weights of a ton or more. It is evident that other things being
equal, the larger the size of the icrystals, the more readily can their
separation be carried out, and ease of separation is an important
factor in the success of quarry operations for the production of
feldspar and quartz.
Pegmatite is commonly associated with granite in its field occur-
rence. It is rare enough to find any large granite exposure without
more or less of pegmatite either as included bodies or as distinct
but apparently related intrusions in the surrounding country. The
relation is so constant as to lead to the view already expressed
earlier in this report that pegmatite is really bitt a modified form
of granite, the textural differences being ascribable to variations in
the process of crystallization. The presence in pegmatites of min-
erals containing fluorine, chlorine, boron, water, and other ingre-
dients that are regarded as powerful solvents or " mineralizers," is
significant. It appears very probable from this and other consider-
ations that the rock represents the residue of a granite magma that
was still held liquid after the main body had reached its consoli-
dation temperature. This residue would tend to gather in the lower
part of the magma as a result of the forcing out of the solvents from
the cooling and crystallizing zone above. With the solvent vapors,
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK
some of the silica, alkalies etc., would be retained in a condition
facilitating their ready migration through any favorable channels
that might be formed by the fracturing of the overlying rocks. The
formation of pegmatite dikes is thus a normal after-effect of an
igneous intrusion. As regards their mineral nature, there seems to
be a gradation from a composition about that of granite to very
quartzose phases and even to pure quartz. The occurrence of many
quartz veins in the vicinity of granite intrusions may thus be ex-
Forms of pegmatite bodies. Pegmatite intrusions commonly
occur in tabular masses which are called dikes when they occupy
vertical or highly inclined fissures, or sills if they follow channels
in a nearly horizontal plane. Their direction is determined by lines
of structural weakness in the country rock, such as faulting, joint-
ing and in the case of sediments oftentimes by bedding, whichever
structure may afford the easiest outlet toward the surface. Dikes
and sills are sharply defined in contact with the country rocks.
Though exceedingly numerous in the vicinity of granite masses,
they only rarely attain a workable size. Their length naturally
exceeds their thickness and it is rather seldom that the latter reaches
more than a few feet.
Of more importance for quarry purposes, at least in this State, are
the bosses and stocks of pegmatite that are characterized by a
rounded or lenticular form as seen on the surface. Like bosses of
ordinary granite, they seem to have made their own outlet toward
the surface rather than to have followed some preexisting struc-
tural channel. They are more or less irregular in their boundaries,
but in a general way approach an equidimensional form as seen in
outcrop. They are well defined along the contact with the country
rocks. They reach diameters of several hundred feet, as instanced
by some of the occurrences in the eastern Adirondacks. They seem
to be specially developed in the harder, more massive gneisses and
in the granites themselves, whereas dikes occur both in these rocks
and in the schists and sedimentary foundations, but are more
characteristic perhaps of the latter.
Besides intrusive pegmatites, there are bodies occurring in the
older granites and gneisses which seem to have originated in place
by some process of differential crystallization while the magma was
cooling ; or in the case of gneisses they may have been found during
a period of resoftening of the rock mass incident to metamorphism.
They are of varied shape and size, often consisting of narrow bands
that shade off on all sides to the parent rock or in large masses
156 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
that are bordered at times by fine-grained aplitic granite. Peg-
matites of this nature have no economic importance as sources of
feldspar or quartz, as the minerals are not sufficiently large or
segregated to admit their easy separation.
The feldspar minerals. The general mineral composition of
pegmatites has been given on pages 66 and 67 of this report. It
should be noted, however, that feldspar, the principal economic
product of the local pegmatites, is not a definite mineral species,
but rather a mineral group, the members of which vary among
themselves in chemical and physical properties^ as well as in their
industrial uses. The requirements for pottery spar, for which a
fairly large and steady market exists, are such as to exclude all but
a few varieties, and similarly there are certain restrictions generally
upon the kinds that find use in other industries. It is therefore
highly essential to ascertain the nature of the feldspar in pegmatite
and its adaptability for different purposes before undertaking the
development of a deposit.
The feldspar minerals are composed of silica and alumina with
one or more of the bases — potash, soda and lime. It is usual to
class them in two principal groups, the potash feldspars and the
lime-soda feldspars, according to the nature of the bases present.
The potash feldspars correspond chemically to the formula,
KAlSisOg or KoO.ALOg. 6SiO, ; accordingly when pure they should
contain silica 64.7 per cent, alumina 18.4 per cent and potash 16.8
per cent. As a matter of fact, the potash seldom reaches the theo-
retical proportion, being partially replaced by soda which enters
into the chemical structure or is contained in another kind of feld-
spar intergrown with the potash variety. The amount of soda
present may range from i to 5 or 6 per cent. The potash feldspars
include orthoclase and microcline, the former monoclinic and the
latter triclinic in crystal form. Their distinction requires accurate
measurements of the cleavage or interfacial angles, or a study of
their optical properties under the miscroscope. Microcline is the
more common variety in New York pegmatites. There is no
difference in their value for pottery or other uses.
The lime-soda group of feldspars, or the plagioclases, consists of
a continuous series that ranges from the pure soda variety, or
albite, at the one end to the lime feldspar, anorthite, at the other.
The 'Composition of albite is represented by the formula NaAlSioOs
or Na20.Al20o.6SiOo, corresponding to the following individual per-
centages : silica 68.7; alumina 19.5; soda 11.8. Anorthite has the
composition CaALSioOg or CaO.ALOg.sSiOg and contains in per-
OUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK
centages : silica 43.2; alumina 36.7; lime 20.1. The intermediate
members are mixtures of the two in various proportions which can
be expressed in general terms as Ab^An . They include oligoclase,
andesine, labradorite and bytownite, named in order from the soda
to the lime end of the series. The feldspars with high percentages
of soda are called the acid series on account of their relatively
large proportion of silica in contrast with those high in lime, which
are relatively low in silica. The identification of the different
members requires accurate crystal measurements (all belong to the
triclinic system but differ individually in form), or optical study,
or chemical analysis, and the methods need not be explained here.
The plagioclases commonly exhibit a striated appearance on certain
faces which arise from minute parallel lines that mark the contact
of lamellae in reversed or twinned position. This characteristic is
not common to the potash feldspars.
The color of the feldspars exercises no influence upon their use,
except as it may be due to the presence of iron stain or iron-bearing
impurities. The potash feldspars commonly are light yellow, pink,
red or gray in color. The color of plagioclase varies from pure
white, most often seen in albite, to gray, brown or greenish, and
less commonly reddish. The variations in natural color disappear
when the feldspar is fused, the melt being usually white.
The use of feldspar in pottery and generally for glazing purposes
is conditioned by the chemical composition which determines the
temperature of fusion. The potash varieties, orthoclase and micro-
cline, and the soda variety, albite, have the lowest melting tempera-
tures. According to the more recent work of Day and Alien,^ who
carried out a very extensive series of experiments on the subject,
these varieties do not melt at a definite point, but their fusion
extends over a range of temperatures. In finely powdered micro-
cline there was evidence of sintering at 1000° C, but the material
was not actually fused until the temperature reached about 1300°.
Albite fused at a somewhat lower point, but still above 1250° C.
The lime-soda varieties melt at temperatures between 1340°, the
fusing point of oligoclase, and 1532°, which is the melting point of
Besides their lower fusing point, the feldspars that contain high
percentages of alkalies possess a further important feature, namely,
that on melting they yield a translucent glass. The varieties high
1 Carnegie Institute Publications No. 31, Washington, 1905, p. 13-75; also
Amer. Jour. Sci. 4th ser. v. ig. 1905, p. 93-142.
158 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
ill lime, on the other hand, possess a strong tendency to crystalHze
and only consolidate in glassy form when quickly cooled. The
crystallizing property becomes more marked with increase in the
lime and is very strong in anorthite. This feature, of course,
operates against the use of the more basic feldspars in pottery
Uses of pegmatite. The products of the local pegmatite quarries
include feldspar of different grades, quartz, mica and unsorted
The uses of feldspar are various. The principal demand for
high-grade potash spar is in the pottery industry, parti'cularly in
the manufacture of porcelain, semiporcelain and china tablewares,
and porcelain sanitary wares and electrical supplies. The feldspar
for such purposes should contain no more than a mere trace of
iron, and very little muscovite or other mineral impurities except
quartz, which is allowable up to a certain extent. In such wares
it performs a double function, being employed to bind together
the quartz and kaolin that constitute the body and also as a con-
stituent of the glaze when this is required. The proportion of
feldspar used in the body of vitrified wares ranges from 10 to 35
per cent and in glazes from 30 to 50 per cent. Bastin states ^ that
the requirements in regard to allowable percentages of free quartz
differ among individual potteries ; a few manufacturers of high-
grade wares demand a feldspar with less than 5 per cent of free
quartz, but most potters perhaps use the " Standard " ground spar
carrying 15 to 20 per cent of admixed quartz.
Manufacturers of enamel ware, glazed brick and terra cotta con-
sume consideralDle quantities of feldspar. In enamel ware, the re-
quirements are perhaps not so strict in regard to iron as in pottery
manufacture, but the spar must be fairly free of quartz, as the
latter tends to raise the melting point. Among enamel ware and
terra cotta manufacturers, a preference is shown for albite over the
potash varieties owing to its lower fusing point. Little of this
mineral is found in the New York pegmatites, but it occurs in
quantity in eastern Pennsylvania and in Maryland. Another use
for the local feldspar is in the manufacture of opalescent glass.
This requires a material of about the same quality as that for
enamel ware, but may contain more quartz.
A large quantity of feldspar is employed as an abrasive, es-
specially in the form of scouring soaps and powders. For that
^Feldspar Deposits of the United States, U. S. Geol. Sur. Bui. 420, 1910,
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 1 59
purpose it is ground to an inipalpaljle powder. It also finds use
in the manufacture of abrasive wheels as a binder for the emery
or carborundum with which the spar is mixed.
The quartz, which is an important ingredient of the local peg-
matites, has value if obtainable in fairly pure condition. It is
extensively produced at the Bedford cjuarries. The principal uses
are in pottery and in the manufacture of abrasives and wood filler.
The requirements for pottery are strict with regard to iron, but
less so for other uses. The quartz from pegmatites may be re-
garded as a by-product, not of sufficient importance to warrant
quarry operations for itself alone. Larger amounts of quartz come
from quartz veins.
The unsorted pegmatite, when crushed, finds sale among makers
of prepared roofing, in which it is employed as a surface coating
with tar or some bituminous binder. The pegmatite is crushed to
a pea size or a little coarser, the feldspar and mica yielding flat
surfaces that are of advantage in securing firm adherence to the
paper. The purity of the material is a subordinate factor and no
effort is made usually to separate any of the ingredients. The fine
material resulting from the crushing is sold for use in concrete and
grout, and a small proportion in the coarser sizes finds a market
as poultry grit. Crushed pegmatite has recently come into use in the
preparation oi artificial stone which is made to imitate granite and is
cast in almost any form so as to require little or no dressing.
General considerations. The economic value of pegmatite oc-
currences depends upon a number of features, some of which have
been mentioned already. The character of the feldspar will deter-
mine the adaptability of the product to different uses. In case the
minerals are much intergrown, even if in fairly large individuals,
the material can hardly be sold for the higher grades without so
much expense in sorting and cobbing as to render the operations
unprofitable. Such occurrences are adapted only for the production
of unsorted pegmatite for roofing and concrete. To enable them
to be worked profitably, they must be of large size and conveniently
situated for shipment of the product to market.
Under the varying conditions presented by the occurrence and
mineral nature of pegmatites, there is little that can be stated gen-
erally in regard to the value of undeveloped properties. As a rule,
it may be said that a dike or lens less than 25 feet thick is not
workable and one of that size can be worked profitably only under
exceptional circumstances. Of course, much depends upon distance
of haulage and the freight rates to market.
l6o NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
There is considerable uncertainty as to the quantity of available
material in pegmatites, even when they have been well exposed at
the surface. Unlike normal granites, they are very liable to sudden
variations in the proportions and relations of the quartz and feld-
spar, such variations arising quite abruptly. This involves a con-
siderable element of risk, particularly in the working of small
bodies for some particular grade of feldspar. In the larger dikes
and bosses, the desired quality may be obtained by carrying on
work in several places and sorting the product carefully into grades.
Thus at Bedford three grades of feldspar are produced from one
body, besides a quartz by-product. With a small output, it is not
practicable always to sort the product so carefully and there is
consequently more waste.
THE LOCAL DISTRIBUTION OF PEGMATITES IN NEW YORK
The pegmatites are limited in their occurrence to the two prin-
cipal areas of early crystalline rocks represented by the- Adiron-
dacks and the southeastern Highlands. They occur in the vicinity
of the larger granite intrusions, but the workable bodies are more
often found on the periphery of such intrusions and within the
older country gneisses and schists than in the midst of the granites
themselves. They appear sometimes in the areas where ordinary
granites do not outcrop, but in this case they may be offshoots of
some 'buried mass that were able to reach the surface on account of
their fluid condition.
The Adirondack region is well supplied with pegmatites, but they
are by no means equally distributed. The great anorthosite mass
that spreads over the eastern central part, mainly within Essex
county, is naturally devoid of occurrences, as it is of later intru-
sives generally, except those of basic character. In the fringe of
gneisses to the east of that mass there are granite intrusions and
pegmatites, some .of the latter of large size, as those near Crown
Point and Ticonderoga. In the northern Adirondacks, which is
largely occupied by a belt of very old gneisses, few intrusions of
younger granite are encountered. So far, only one large pegmatite
body has been reported in that section. The southern Adirondacks
have a number of occurrences and it may be expected that others
will be found here as the region is more carefully explored, but
they are likely to be in the more inaccessible parts. The western
Adirondacks, particularly the section included in St Lawrence,
Jefiferson and northern Lewis counties, is known to include numer-
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK l6l
oLis 'bathyliths and bosses of granite, covering a larger portion of
the surface than in any other part ; the granites are mainly coarse
varieties, rich in quartz and containing segregated masses of peg-
matite. The conditions thus appear very favorable for the occur-
rence of extensive bodies an that section, but the remote and
inaccessible nature of much of the area has rather discouraged
In the Highlands region and southward into Westchester county
pegmatites are quite abundant but only rarely reach workable pro-
portions. They occur mainly in the Precambric gneisses, but may
be of much later age than the latter as the granite invasions con-
tinued down into Siluric time. The principal bodies that have been
worked are near Bedford, Westchester county. In the central
Jlighlands there is much pegmatite and coarse granite in evidence,
usually pinkish or grayish in color, but there are no developed
quarries. The pegmatites occur in considerable bodies in the
vicinity of some of the magnetite deposits.
The present description of the pegmatite localities includes men-
tion of all of present or prospective importance that have come to
the writer's attention during rather extended travels in the field.
A few have been mentioned in previous reports of the State Mu-
seum, and many of the better known occurrences are given detailed
treatment in Bastin's monographic bulletin, " Economic Geology of
the Feldspar Deposits of the United States," already cited.
CROWN POINT, ESSEX COUNTY
Quarry of the Crown Point Spar Company
The pegmatite quarry worked by the Crown Point Spar Com-
pany is on Breed's hill, south of Crown Point, about 1^4 miles west
from Lake Champlain. The pegmatite outcrops on one of the
summit knobs, 500 feet or more above the lake level. It was dis-
covered some years ago by Charles Wait of Crown Point, the
present manager in charge of the quarry. It is apparently a large,
somewhat irregular lens or stock, with a longer diameter running
northeast-southwest parallel to the general tend of the surrounding
gneisses. The full size is not revealed, but it measures several hun-
dred feet at least in that direction. Toward the border it becomes
finer grained. The country gneiss is a dark, banded variety, much of
it an amphibolite, and is intruded by aplite and pegmatite. Small
masses of the latter may be observed, which approximate the shape
of the larger body ; they are irregularly bounded and contain patches
of the country gneiss that have been torn away from the walls.
NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
The pegmatite consists of two varieties of feldspar, one a light
pink and the other greenish ; also quartz and biotite, with occasional
small crystals of titanite, magnetite, zircon, tourmaline, pyrite and
Fig. 13 Intrusion of pegmatite in gneiss, near quarry of Crown Point Spar
Co., sliowing the bosslike shape of the pegmatite masses in this section
chalcopyrite. Bastin reports also the presence of allanite. Chlorite
occurs as a secondary development along planes of slipping incident
to compression. The quartz and feldspar are rather intimately
intermixed, but single individuals of either occur up to 6 or 8
inches in diameter. An examination of the feldspars under the
microscope show that the pink variety is microcline and the greenish
a plagioclase in optical properties close to oligoclase. Most of the
iron is present in biotite which is rather abundant though unequally
The principal product of the c[uarry is roofing material but other
grades are sold for concrete, poultry grit and enamel wares. The
spar for the latter purpos^e is obtained from sorted material that is
free of iron minerals, with microcline as the main ingredient. The
biotite is screened out and finds application in paint.
The pegmatite as quarried is conveyed by an overhead tram to
the mill which is situated at the base of the hill close to the lake and
railroad. It is there passed through a preliminary crusher of the
Blake type, then dried and further reduced by rolls and sized on
screens. The pottery grade after crushing and drying goes to a
chaser for final reduction. The crushed pegmatite is graded into
six sizes of which the coarsest (no. 2) will pass a 2^ mesh screen
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 163
and is caught on a 3^ mesh screen, and the finest (no. 6), which
is hke very fine sand.
Roe's quarry, locally known as Roe's spar-bed, is about 8 miles
northwest of Crown Point in the vicinity of Towner pond, near the
Moriah town line. The locality more precisely is three-fourths of a
mile directly south of Towner pond and one-fourth of a mile east
of the highway leading past the pond. It is in a very rugged section,
quite close to the main anorthosite intrusion, lying well up on a
ridge at an elevation of between iioo and 1200 feet, according to
the contour map.
The property was last worked fifteen years or more ago as a
source of pottery spar. The output, which must have been con-
siderable in view of the size of the. quarry working, was hauled to
Crown Point for shipment at a cost of from $1.25 to $1.50 a ton.
The property now belongs to H. W. Willcox of Crown Point.
The opening in its present condition is 75 feet wide running
northeasterly into the ridge and has a face 50 feet high. Apparently
the body has the shape of an elongated lens, from 75 to 100 feet
wide and of uncertain length. The bounds are not clearly revealed
by outcrops and there is some doubt as to the extent of the peg-
matite outside of the part worked. The longer axis appears to run
about N. 50° E. as indicated by a series of test pits below the main
opening. Above or northeast of the quarry the country rock, a
grayish hornblende gneiss, outcrops within a short distance of the
line of strike, so that apparently there is not much more to be
quarried in that direction. A large supply exists, however, in the
floor of the quarry which could be conveniently worked, and prob-
ably also good material would be found to the southwest. The
existence of feldspar on the adjoining property to the south of the
Roe quarry was reported to the writer, but the locality was not
The feldspar occurs in very large crystals and aggregates, well
segregated. Individuals with a cross-section of 3 feet are not un-
common. Some show fine crystal boundaries as they project from
the walls of the quarry. There are two varieties of feldspar present,
pink and grayish white, the former showing the properties of micro-
cline and the latter of oligoclase. They appear to be in about equal
amounts. Quartz occurs in subordinate quantity and is unequally
distributed, being practically absent over considerable areas. It is
pink or milky in color. Graphic intergrowths with feldspar are in
164 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM •
evidence, but the proportion is small. Of iron-bearing silicates,
biotite and black tourmaline are fairly common, but for the most
part are segregated in bunches, so that their presence would not
entail any great waste in sorting for pottery materials. Altogether
the pegmatite is exceptionally adapted for the production of feld-
The face of the quarry is cut by four trap dikes, from i inch
to 2 feet thick, which are quite closely spaced and probably coalesce
The main difificulty in the way of successful operation of the
quarry seems to be its remoteness. The nearest outlet to the rail-
road is by way of Crown Point over a rather rough country, but
with the grade favoring the load.
Penfield Pond occurrence
A body of pegmatite of large size occurs on the road leading west
from near the south end of Penfield pond. It was noted by the
writer several years ago, but was not examined with regard to the
quality of the materials.
In the report by Dr Ida H. Ogilvie on the Paradox Lake quad-
rangle,^ it is stated that pegmatites are abundant in the vicinity of
TICONDEROGA, ESSEX COUNTY
Quarry of Barrett Manufacturing Company
The Barrett Manufacturing Company has operated a quarry near
Ticonderoga for several years past, using the crushed pegmatite in
the preparation of sheet roofing. The quarry is situated about 2
miles northwest of the village of Ticorrderoga at the eastern base
of the ridge of Precambric rocks. The occurrence is very similar
to that described near Crown Point, consisting of a large lens of
pegmatite included within gneisses of the Grenville series with the
larger axis parallel to the strike of the latter, which is about N.55°E.
The pegmatite is made up of quartz and feldspar which are not
very well segregated and do not attain large size, the individual
crystals being seldom more than 4 or 5 inches across. The feldspar
consists of two varieties, the more abundant being a white or
grayish microcline. The second variety is a light green oligoclase.
Intergrowth of the quartz and feldspar is the usual condition. The
1 N. Y. State Museum Bui. 96, 1905, p.
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 165
principal iron mineral is biotite, which forms rather large crystals
but is very unequally distributed. There is some secondary chlorite.
Black tourmaline, garnet and iron sulphides occur sparingly. The
character of the pegmatite thus agrees very closely with the Crown
Point occurrence and is no doubt connected with the same series of
The product of the quarry is reduced in a mill neai-by, equipped
with jaw crusher and rolls and screens for sizing. The material
too fine for roofing is sold for concrete and grout. No pottery
grades are obtained. The output is hauled by wagons to Ticon-
deroga for shipment.
Mount Defiance quarry
An abandoned quarry is found on the north end of Mount De-
fiance between Montcalm Landing and Ticonderoga. It was worked
several years ago by the Ticonderoga Feldspar Co. The rock
strictly is not a granite pegmatite, but a coarse phase of the country
gneiss which belongs to the syenitic class. It contains hornblende
and pyroxene with some quartz and a perthitic feldspar.
FORT ANN, WASHINGTON COUNTY
An exposure of pegmatite near Fort Ann has been worked at
different times for feldspar and quartz. It is one of the localities
from which quartz was obtained for grinding at the mill that was
operated at Fort Ann about twenty-five or thirty years ago. More
recently it has been a source of feldspar and has been worked inter-
mittently according to the prevailing market demand, the last time
by Dominick Ashley of Glens Falls.
The outcrop lies about 2^ miles northwest from Fort Ann at
the base of the gneiss ridge, of which the higher part is known as
Putnam mountain. It is on or adjoins the farm of Ira D. Gilmore.
It consists of a rather irregular area, suggesting somewhat a lens,
with a longer axis nearly at right angles to the trend of the ridge
or to the northwest. An open pit about 125 feet long and from
30 to 40 feet deep has been made but is now largely filled with
water. The lens is broadest near the southeastern end where it
measures fully 75 feet across. To the northeast it gradually dimin-
ishes and wedges out in the gneiss 50 feet beyond the end of the
pit. The gneiss wall rock is a laminated biotite variety that may
be classed with the Grenville series.
l66 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
The pegmatite contains much graphic intergrowth of feldspar
and quartz, although the two minerals also occur separately to
a considerable extent.
The quartz masses reach a diameter of 2 or 3 feet and the feld-
spar a similar size. Most of the feldspar has a grayish color and
belongs to the microcline variety. There is also a little pinkish
feldspar which may be orthoclase. Tourmaline and the iron-bearing
silicates generally have a very limited representation, though the
material is much stained by iron oxides, the result probably of
oxidation of sulphides.
The pegmatite shows alteration in places, with the formation of
kaolin and sericite, and takes on a greenish coloration which seems
to be traceable to secondary serpentine. The presence of this
mineral is not connected apparently with any magnesium compound
of the pegmatite, but is referable to the alteration of the feldspar
and to the introduction of magnesium compounds from outside
sources. Apparently the pegmatite has been a channel for ground
CHESTERTOWN, WARREN COUNTY
Wilson Brown quarry
The name of this quarry is given on the authority of residents of
Chestertown, who stated to the writer that the property was last
worked about fifteen years ago. The purpose of the operations
originally was the production of mica. The locality is 3 miles south
of Chestertown on the north side of a high ridge i^^ miles east of
the Warrensburg road. Two workings may be seen, the principal
one being to the south and higher up on the ridge. This consists
of an open cut about 50 feet long and 15' feet wide on a dike or
elongated lens of pegmatite that strikes northeast. The limits of the
body are uncertain, except on the east side of the pit where the
country rock appears within a few feet of the wall. The more
northerly pit is probably a separate body, unless the pegmatite has
a much larger extent than seems to be indicated. It is a narrow
opening of undetermined depth.
EDINBURG, SARATOGA COUNTY
In 1906 the Claspka Mining Company of Trenton, N. J., opened
a quarry in the town of Edinburg, Saratoga county, which the com-
pany worked for two or three years for pottery spar. The locality
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 167
of the quarry is 2 miles north of Batchellerville, on the road to
Day, on the farm of Adelbert Gordon. The nearest railroad point
is Northville, the northern terminus of a branch that connects at
Fonda with the New York Central lines, necessitating a wagon
haulage of 8 or 9 miles over a somewhat rough country.
There are two openings on the property, situated about one-fourth
of a mile east of the highway at the base of the ridge which forms
the steep eastern slope of the Sacandaga river valley. The lower
or westerly pit has been worked to a depth of about 50 feet. Its
horizontal dimensions are about 75 feet by 50 feet, indicating the
usual stock form in which most of the larger bodies of pegmatite
occur, but the whole area of the pegmatite is not shown. The
minerals are in coarse crystals and fairly well segregated, though
there is considerable graphic intergrowth of quartz and feldspar.
The former is found also in pure masses of white and pink color
up to a foot in diameter. The feldspar is mostly grayish micro-
cline, but is intergrown to some extent with a white variety which
microscopically corresponds to albite. The largest individuals ob-
served were fully 3 feet in length. Much waste in quarrying was
incurred from the presence of abundant mica and owing to the
existence of an included lens of the wall rock. A large quantity of
quartz, mica and mixed material was left at the quarry after the
feldspar had been sorted for shipment.
A feature of this quarry is the fine crystals of muscovite and
beryl which occasionally attain very unusual dimensions. The mus-
covite forms books and columnar crystals that measure a foot or
more in diameter and from an inch or so to 10 inches thick. The
mica, however, is not generally suitable for cutting as it shows
rulings and contains inclusions of iron oxides. The beryls are the
largest that have been found in the State; one crystal, now in the
State Museum, has a length of 27 inches and a diameter of 10
inches. The larger ones are opaque and greenish in color, but some
small crystals have been found that were fairly clear aquamarines.
They show the hexagonal prism faces but are not terminated.
A second pit lies to the east of the one described and is of smaller
size. The pegmatite has the same general character as noted but
shows some garnet.
There appears to be a good body of pegmatite at this place,
though the contact against the country gneisses is not so well dis-
closed as to permit an estimate of the exact size. The gneiss is a
biotite variety with augen of feldspar and shows a foliation that
strikes about N. 50° E. and dips 30° southeast. Apparently the
l68 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
pegmatite does not conform to the structure of the gneiss, but
breaks across the foHation, which it would naturally do if it were
in the nature of a stock rather than a dike.
The occurrence still possesses value for the production of pottery
spar. The main drawback at present is the expense of haulage.
CORINTH, SARATOGA COUNTY
Quarry of American Feldspar & Milling Co.
This quarry is a practically undeveloped property from which
only trial shipments have thus far been made. The Corinth Feld-
spar Co. did some work on it in 1908, but relinquished control to
the company named, who are its present owners. The property is
about 3 miles southwest from the Corinth railroad station and 700
feet above it.
The pegmatite has a width of about 60 feet and is exposed over
a vertical distance of 130 feet. It has not been sufficiently developed
to indicate the shape of the body, but it is perhaps an elongated
lens or dike intruded parallel to the foliation of the surrounding
gneiss which trends a little west of north. There is more or less
of the rock in evidence over a distance of 2000 feet. The peg-
matite consists mainly of an intergrowth of quartz and feldspar,
with only a small part of either mineral in free crystals serviceable
for pottery uses. The feldspar is an untwinned variety that appears
to be orthoclase, a rather rare form for Adirondack pegmatites.
There is considerable biotite which is so equally distributed as
to render its separation a matter of difficulty.
MAYFIELD, FULTON COUNTY
This occurrence of pegmatite was worked a few years since by
the Claspka Mining Co. along with the quarry near Batchellerville.
It is situated in the town of Mayfield, 3 miles west of Cranberry
creek, on the farm of Richard Tyrell. The outcrop lies well up
on the gneiss ridge, 800 or 900 feet above the railroad which
terminates at Northville, 5 miles above Cranberry creek.
The main body of pegmatite is opened by a pit 50 or 60 feet
across and heading into a ridge in a northeasterly direction. The
quarry face as left by the former operations is over 50 feet high.
The materials are coarsely crystallized, the quartz and feldspar
reaching a maximum diameter of 3 or 4 feet. The feldspar in-
cludes pinkish microcline and a white striated albite. The latter is
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 169
usually predominant, while the microcline is so much intergrown
with biotite as to cause much loss in sorting. There is also a little
of greenish gray oligoclase. On the east side of the quarry a trap
dike intervenes between the pegmatite and the country gneiss.
Biotite and tourmaline are the iron-bearing impurities. The latter
is in small amount, associated more especially with the quartz. The
biotite is rather abundant and in large crystals.
It would appear that the spar from this quarry might prove ver}^
serviceable for enamel ware and for glazing brick and terra cotta,
for which purposes albite is considered preferable to the potash
varieties on account of its lower fusing point.
There are several places in the vicinity of the quarry where
pegmatite outcrops. One showing is just northeast, a ledge 30 or
40 feet long, with reddish feldspar and some biotite. An 8-foot dike
occurs just west of Mr Tyrell's house and contains reddish feldspar
and pink quartz, with little mica or other dark silicates. The local-
ity may be considered one of the more promising places for ex-
ploration for feldspar in this section.
DE KALB, ST LAWRENCE COUNTY
The existence of a ledge of coarse pegmatite in the town of
Bigelow, St Lawrence county, was brought to the writer's attention
some lime ago by J. H. McLear of Gouverneur. The occurrence
is 3 miles northeast of Bigelow, between that place and East De
Kalb. It is exposed in natural outcrops rising in low ridges above
the general surface. One of the ridges is on the Rowland farm
and another occurs on an adjoining property. They are conspicu-
ous objects on account of the white color which is contributed
both by the feldspar and the quartz.
The principal ledge is about 75 feet long and 40 teet wide, but
these measurements are based on the actual exposure and the
body is undoubtedly considerably larger, as there is no evidence of
any walls where the pegmatite disappears below the surface. A
second ledge is found 300 feet southwest of the first, practically in
the direction of the longer axis of the first; and the pegmatite is
said to be exposed in other places which, however, were not seen
by the writer. There is little doubt that the occurrence represents
a large mass of the pegmatite, but whether in a single body or in
two or more bodies is not apparent.
170 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM '
The exposures reveal fresh, unaUered rock from the very surface.
There is no iron stain and practically no iron silicates are in evi-
dence, though an occasional grain of pyrite occurs in the quartz.
The latter is milky white and forms unmixed masses, but mainly
occurs intergrown with the feldspar. There is only one kind of
this mineral, so far as could be established from a hasty examina-
tion ; the feldspar is white perthitic microcline that might readily be
mistaken for albite except for the lack of striations. The micro-
cline on close examination shows a very fine intergrowth with an-
other feldspar, also white, that has the optical properties of albite.
There is perhaps one-fourth as much albite as microcline. The in-
cluded bands of albite are approximately normal to both cleavages.
The feldspar occurs in crystals from 6 inches to 3 feet long. It is
probable that a fair proportion of first-grade pottery spar
could be secured, but the larger quantity would have to be graded,
however, on account of the quartz. This opinion is based, of
course, solely upon the surface showing and there is need of care-
ful prospecting before any attempt is made to extract material for
The ledges are only slightly above the ground level and a quarry
would soon develop into a subsurface working that would require
draining. The conditions otherwise seem favorable for economical
work. The railroad passes within one-fourth of a mile of the
FOWLER, ST LAWRENCE COUNTY
A dike of pegmatite with well-crystallized feldspar occurs on
the farm of C. W. Denesia about 2 miles south of Fullerville, in
the town of Fowler. There is a single exposure which seems to be
,of a dike, but it is too limited in area to permit much certainty
regarding the nature and size of the body. The outcrop is only
8 feet wide. With the very small area of rock exposed there is
a probability that the occurrence may be of greater importance than
is at present indicated. The feldspar occurs in splendidly developed
crystals from 2 to 3 feet long, inclosed in a gronndinass of inter-
grown quartz and feldspar with which tourmaline and biotite are
associated. It consists of a deep red microcline and also of a lighter
pinkish variety that is an intergrowth of microcline and albite.
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK I/I
FINE, ST LAWRENCE COUNTY
There are several occurrences of pegmatite on the Fred Scott
farm, 4 miles north of OswegatJiie, in the town of Fine, St
Lawrence county. They are of interest for the associated min-
erals as well as for possible supply of quartz and feldspar. The
feldspars occur in pink, white and greenish colors, evidently in-
cluding both potash and lime-soda varieties. They are seldom found
in segregated masses or crystals, but are mostly intergrown with
quartz and some of the other minerals. Among the mineral species
represented are fluorite, hornblende, pyroxene, pyrite, chalcopyrite
and titanite, some being well crystallized. The association suggests
a granite contact with limestone, and in fact the latter rock is found
in scattered patches in the vicinity.
BEDFORD, WESTCHESTER COUNTY
Quarry of P. H. Kinkel & Sons
The body of pegmatite situated in the hill southeast of Bedford
village has for a number of years furnished a very large part of
the feldspar and quartz production of the State. Besides the four
openings included in the Kinkel quarry, the Bedford Feldspar Co.
has recently developed a new quarry on the same body. The occur-
rence is notable not only for its size, but for its good examples of
crystallized and rare minerals and for the varied conditions pre-
sented by the mineral association in different parts of the exposure.
The several openings in the Kinkel cjuarry lie along the eastern
and northern sides of the hill, the original pit being on the east
side near the present mill. At this point the pegmatite shows more
or less disintegration from surface weathering, so that operations
have not been as actively carried on here as in the other pits higher
up on the hill slope. These include two very large pits of which
the more southerly one is about 300 feet long, 150 feet wide and
has a face up to 50 feet high. The central one is not quite so long
and the more northerly one is about 100 feet long, 50 feet wide and
35 feet in greatest depth. Between the different pits and even in
parts of the same working a marked variation may be observed
in the arrangement and character of the pegmatite minerals.
Though feldspar is the main component throughout most of the
172 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
exposure, it gives way in places to a nearly pure quartz aggregate.
Quartz is particularly abundant in the central part of the southern
pit where it occurs in a large zone which here and there incloses
a crystal or mass of pink feldspar. On either side of the quartz
zone for some distance occurs a mixed phase of quartz and albite
in pegmatitic intergrowth, with occasional segregated individuals
or masses of the pink feldspar, which is microcline. The pink
feldspar occurs by itself also in considerable bodies. The white
albite is mainly developed as a graphic intergrowth with the quartz.
Between the different phases exhibited by the feldspar, quartz and
intergrowths of the two, it is possible to have every gradation. The
conditions seem to indicate more or less segregation of the constitu-
ents during the process of intrusion, facilitated no doubt by the
extreme mobility of the magma. Lack of uniformity is rather
characteristic of the larger pegmatitic bodies; and similar features
may be seen in other occurrences though they are not so well shown
as in these quarries.
The feldspar from the different workings is graded according to
character and content of quartz. The microcline, which occurs
mainly in quite pure crystals and aggregates, constitutes the first
grade, suitable for pottery purposes. The albite that is fairly free
of quartz, but not entirely so, is sold as enamel material. The
pegmatitic intergrowth of albite and quartz, with more or less of
the pink variety as well, is used in glass manufacture, scouring
soaps, etc. The first grade has generally been sold in crude con-
dition, as the mill until recently was not equipped for grinding
pottery material. The others were ground at the quarries. Besides
the feldspar, there are obtained large quantities of quartz, which
is shipped crude to the Bridgeport Wood Finishing Co. for wood
filler and silica paint material.
The more common associated minerals included mica, tour-
maline, and beryl ; occasional ingredients are garnet, ilmenite and
some of the uranium minerals. The mica is principally muscovite
and occurs as included crystals in the feldspar or in the finer peg-
matitic intergrowths along with the feldspars and quartz. The
crystals seldom exceed 5 or 6 inches in diameter. They are much
fractured and scarcely suitable for cutting of sheet mica. The
biotite is in larger crystals but not so plentiful as to give much
trouble in its removal. The tourmaline is the common black
variety; it is mostly associated with the quartz as well-shaped pris-
matic crystals and as a thin crystalline coating on the surfaces.
The beryl forms flat and prismatic crystals, occasionally well-
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK I73
bounded, reaching diameters of 6 or 8 inches. It is usually opaque,
yellowish green in color. The rare compounds, autunite, cyrtolite
and uraconite all of which contain uranium are listed by Luquer ^
as occurring at Bedford. The first-named occurs rather frequently
^s a bright greenish-yellow deposit on the feldspar and mica.
The writer has recently observed the presence of columbite in
crystalline masses of considerable size.
In connection with the quarry, P. H. Kinkel & Sons operate a
mill for grinding the spar. The equipment consists of a breaker,
chasers and screens with a pebble mill for the fine grinding of
pottery spar. This is a recent addition, as formerly only the second
and third grades were ground, for which purpose the final reduction
was accomplished in a ball mill.
The output of the quarries is shipped from Bedford station on
the Harlem branch of the New York Central, necessitating a
haulage of 5 miles.
Quarry of Bedford Feldspar Co.
This new opening lies at the base of the hill and a few hundred
feet north of the Kinkel quarry. The continuation of the pegmatite
in that direction was concealed by a cover of soil and earth and
was first explored by test holes before development work was
The existence of the pegmatite rather indicates that the mass is
not a dike in the usual sense of the word, but another of the
rounded bodies or stocks that constitute the usual mode of occur-
rence of the larger masses. If a dike, it does not conform in direc-
tion with the general structure of the gneisses, but has a northerly
strike. The great width of the body exposed in the Kinkel quarry
is exceptional for a dike. It is possible that the present quarry
is on a separate intrusion, but this scarcely seems likely in view
of the character of the material.
The working is all below the ground level and when seen in the
spring of 1913 was about 30 feet deep with a diameter of 75 feet.
The pegmatite is the same coarse aggregate as found farther south
but carries a larger proportion of feldspar than the average in the
Kinkel quarry. The material is somewhat stained and decomposed,
but fresher material should be found in depth.
1 " The Minerals of the Pegmatite Veins at Bedford, N. Y." The .A.merican
Geologist, V. 18, 1896, p. 259-60. Also American Geologist, v. 38. 1904.
174 ■ NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
The company has erected a mill on the property in which it
grinds all the spar, shipping the ground material to tile, enamel
ware and glass manufacturers. The capacity is 35 or 40 tons a
day. The equipment for final grinding consists of ball mills.
Auto trucks are used to transport the material to Bedford station,
the shipments being made in bags.
The firm of P. H. Kinkel & Sons opened a new quarry in 1912
on the Bullock property about 2 miles south of their main quarries.
The property is west of the Hobby quarry. The occurrence is
very similar to the latter in -the quality of the product but is not
apparently connected with it. It consists of a dike 30 feet wide
which strikes northeast and dips 80° to the northwest. The wall
rock exposed on both sides is a mica schist, garnetiferous near the
contact with the pegmatite, and resembling the Manhattan schist
in its general appearance.
The pegmatite shows a high degree of mineral segregation with
very little of pegmatitic intergrowth. It is mostly feldspar of a
cream or bufif color, which on examination is seen to be an inter-
growth of microcline and albite with the former predominant in
the proportion of 2 or 3 to I. It occasionally shows good crystal
boundaries. The individuals measure as large as 2 feet or so in
length, but are mostly smaller. The quartz has a smoky color and
near the contact shows crystals of garnet. Tourmaline and yel-
lowish mica are in subordinate quantity. The feldspar is readily
separated with little waste, so as to be shipped as no. i grade.
The opening is on the side of a hill and presents a face about
30 feet high. It can be deepened considerably before it is neces-
sary to provide artificial drainage. The product has been shipped
crude for abrasive uses, but is an excellent material for pottery
or glazing. It is noteworthy that the same varieties of feldspar
are represented as in the Bedford quarries, but occur in pegmatite
intergrowths and not segregated.
The Hobby quarry lies a little east of the Bullock beside the
Mianus river. It was worked for a time by Otto Buresch and later
by P. H. Kinkel & Sons, but for the last few years has been idle.
It appears to be based on a large body, though the contacts with
the country rocks are not shown. The working is perhaps 150 feet
long by 100 feet wide.
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 1 75
The pegmatite has the same character as that described for the
Bullock property, but is somewhat coarser. Aggregates of feldspar
10 feet in diameter are found, as well as equally large masses of
white and rose quartz. The conditions are thus excellent for the
production of high-grade materials. The feldspar is cream colored
and is made up of microcline with small albite bands. There is
a small quantity of muscovite in scales and plates associated with
it. Black tourmaline also occurs in limited amount. The property
undoubtedly will be worked when the market affords sufficient in-
ducement. The long haulage of 7 or 8 miles is the main drawback
to operations at present.
176 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
THE NEW YORK MARBLE QUARRIES
GENERAL CHARACTERS OF MARBLES
Marble, like granite, is a term used by quarrymen for a variety
of rock materials. Any limestone that takes a polish or possesses
ornamental qualities is a marble in the trade sense, and some of
the softer silicate rocks are likewise thus designated, notably those
having a serpentine base. More properly the name belongs to the
crystalline or metamorphic class of limestones as distinguished
from the compact to finely granular kinds occurring in the regularly
The quality of crystallinity is not always lacking in ordinary
limestones, for some show aggregates of plainly visible calcite grains
with the characteristic calcite cleavage surfaces ; for example, the
Chazy limestones of the Champlain valley. But their texture is
never so completely crystalline as in the types that have undergone
a metamorphic rearrangement of their constituents while subjected
to compression in the depths of the earth. Such partially crystalline
limestones often polish well, but lack the glint and translucency
of true marbles. In this case, the presence of coarse crystalline cal-
cite probably results from the working over of the finely divided
particles by ground waters.
The microscopic appearance of a true marble is quite distinct
from that of any carbonate rock which has not undergone pressure
metamorphism. In the first place, the particles of calcite (or
dolomite) are more uniform as to size and shape, whereas the
texture of nonmetamorphic limestones is apt to be very variable and
the size of grain shows a wide range. When crystallization takes
place under conditions of cubic compression which characterizes
the metamorphic process at considerable depths, the individual par-
ticles have not opportunity to develop the characteristic outward
forms that calcite ordinarily assumes, but must accommodate them-
selves to the narrow space restrictions resulting from the simul-
taneous crystallization of the whole mass. As a consequence, they
exhibit a more or less even, granular habit with curved or irregular
boundaries which are closely matched together. A second charac-
teristic of the metamorphic liinestones as seen in thin section is the
striations, broader than the lines of cleavage, that cut across the
grains. These mark the junctions of crystals in so-called twinned
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 1 77
positions ; they are not found in calcite particles of ordinary bedded
In the metamorphic change from limestone to marble, the bedded
structure as shown by the separation into parallel layers is usually
obliterated. Marble normally has a massive appearance and is so
coarsely jointed that blocks of almost any size may be quarried.
It also lacks any definite cleavage, a feature that is of great ad-
vantage in the working of the stone.
Serpentine marbles include several types. Serpentine is a hy-
drated silicate of magnesia and iron, which has the same hard-
ness as calcite. The associations of the two minerals, therefore,
does not afifect the capacity of a marble to take a polish. Verde
antique is a serpentine irregularly veined with calcite. Another
type consists of crystalline limestone in which occur scattered grains
of serpentine of the size of peas, giving a white base speckled
with green. Serpentine also occurs unmixed with carbonates and
then exhibits oftentimes an attractive appearance by reason of
variations in color which ranges from light translucent green to
dark green and even black. Its origin is traceable usually to the
decomposition of such minerals as pyroxene, amphibole and olivine.
The larger bodies of serpentine are formed by the weathering of
igneous rocks in which those minerals predominate.
MINERAL CONSTITUENTS OF MARBLE
Marbles may have either calcite (CaCOg) or dolomite
(CaMgCoOg) as the principal ingredient, or they may contain a
mixture of the two in any proportions. A pure calcite marble
would have the same composition naturally as the mineral itself,
which consists of lime (CaO) 56 per cent and carbon dioxide
(CO2) 44 per cent. Theoretically, a dolomite marble should con-
tain lime (CaO) 30.4 per cent, magnesia (MgO) 21.7 per cent and
carbon dioxide (CO.,) 47.8 per cent. These percentages, however,
are never found in commercial marbles, owing to the invariable
presence of other ingredients. The highest grades of white statu-
ary marble, as represented by the best Italian and Greek examples,
carry, however, over 99 per cent calcium carbonate, and there are
American marbles nearly, if not quite, as pure.
Between calcite limestones and the dolomites, every degree of
gradation is to be found, since the two minerals intergrow with each
other in any ratio ; such mixed phases are commonly designated
as magnesian marbles or limestones, as the case may be. There is
178 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
no discernible difference in the outward appearance of a calcite
limestone and a dolomite, and their distinction requires the use of
chemical or microscopic methods. The slight difference in hard-
ness is not a reliable criterion. The two minerals have similar
crystal properties, including perfect cleavage which yields surfaces
of rhombic outline. It is this cleavage that produces the bright
reflections of light and gives life to the crystalline marbles.
The impurities in marbles take the form usually of scattered
grains or crystals of the same order of magnitude as the calcite
particles. In bedded limestones, on the other hand, they are dis-
tributed more or less evenly through the mass and consist of finely
divided clayey and siliceous materials — the mechanical sediment
formed during the deposition of the dissolved carbonates. The
clay and silica form new combinations in the process of meta-
morphism, the carbonates supplying the lime and magnesia that
may be required for the secondary minerals. Among the common
foreign ingredients are muscovite, diopside and tremolite, but a
great number of other silicates may occur. Any fine carbon is
converted into scaly graphite. Some of the silica may' remain as
quartz. The iron minerals include hematite, magnetite and pyrite.
The last-named is most harmful if present in any amount, since
it decomposes readily in the atmosphere, producing a rusty stain
which will spread over large areas.
The texture of marbles varies greatly between examples from
different localities. Some characteristic textures of New York
marbles are illustrated in figures 15 and 17. The grain may be
medium or fine, or may be uneven through the occurrence of differ-
ent sizes of particles. The shape and arrangement of the particles
also are quite variable and upon these features depend to a great
extent the strength and weathering qualities of the stone. The
Gouverneur monumental marble, composed predominately of calcite,
has a very compact texture, with grains of uneven size and of
angular to subrounded form. The particles frequently show dentate
outlines by which they are firmly interlocked; the general appear-
ance in fact is suggestive of the welded and dovetailed arrange-
ment exhibited by some granites. The dolomite ma'rbles of south-
eastern New York range from exceedingly coarse to very fine-
grained varieties, but usually the grain in any one sample is fairly
even. Some have a compact and firmly knit texture and then are
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 179
strong durable stones; others are made up of rounded, smooth
particles which simply adhere without interlockment. The latter
kind are less durable.
Marbles are much more subject to solvent action when exposed
to the weather than the silicate rocks, and the effects of solution
upon most marbles exceed those of mechanical agencies in pro-
moting decay. Pure water, however, has little solvent power upon
either calcite or dolomite; the action of atmospheric moisture de-
pends upon the small amounts of acid constituents which are ab-
sorbed from the air. All rain water contains carbonic acid, and in
cities where the consumption of soft coal is large it carries also
more or less sulphuric acid formed by the combustion of the sul-
phide impurities in the coal. It may be expected, therefore, that
the same marble will weather more rapidly in a humid climate than
in a dry one. Fog and mist have an accentuated effect as they
absorb relatively large proportions of the acids and enable the
moisture to penetrate deeply into the stone.
A dolomite marble, under the same conditions and of equal
quality in regard to textural characters, should prove more resistent
to ordinary weathering agencies than a calcite marble. The fact is,
however, that many dolomites succumb rather rapidly on exposure
to the weather, as is shown in some examples that have been em-
ployed for building purposes in the East. Decay in these cases may
be attributed mainly to the possession of an open weakly bonded
texture which facilitates the penetration of moisture and attack by
The dolomite marbles of southeastern New York include ex-
amples of exceptionally good building materials which have with-
stood well the severe tests of our climate and also others that have
decayed rather rapidly under the same conditions. Smock ^ has
given particulars of the relative durability of different marbles used
in New York City, and states that some of the dolomites have a
durability compared with that of the best sandstones. The old
United States assay office in Wall street was built in 1823 of Tucka-
hoe marble ; though yellow from age, the surface remained smooth
and the edges sharp, whereas the Italian marbles used in the caps
of the columns were much weathered. An example of rapid decay
is found in the State Hall in Albany which was built between 1835
1 Building Stone in New York. N. Y. State Museum Bui. 10, 1890, p. 292-94.
l8o NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
and 1842 of dolomitic marble from Ossining. The outer walls are
roughened by pitting and scaling, and the cornices, lintels and
columns are so much disintegrated by solution and frost as to
present a very bad appearance. The stone is coarse and mealy
in texture, ill suited for building purposes.
The composition of a marble, so far as relates to the relative
percentages of calcium and magnesium, probably has a very sub-
ordinate influence upon weathering qualities. Much more im-
J3ortant is the texture, and this is a feature that varies greatly with
each particular quarry. The size of grain is not necessarily an
indication one way or the other ; though the coarse stones may
possess larger and more continuous pores, their grains present re-
latively smaller surfaces to the attack of solvents than do the fine-
grained sorts. The main elements determining the weathering qual-
ities are the degree of compactness and the coherence between the
grains. These can be ascertained by physical tests for porosity
and tensile strength, and by study of thin sections under the
The presence of silicates in large crystals is detrimental to marble
used for outside work, since there is not the same coherence between
the crystals of silicates and those of the carbonates as between the
carbonates alone, and consequently moisture gains access along their
boundaries. Sulphides are still more obnoxious, not only produc-
ing iron stains, but also causing decomposition and pitting of the
surface through the action of the sulphuric acid which is always
formed by their oxidation.
Dale ^ has made some interesting observations on the effects of
the New England climate upon marble monuments and tombstones
and states that white marbles after exposure for 75 or 100 years
have so far weathered as to indicate the complete efifacement of
the lettering within 300 years of the date of cutting.
Smock ^ gives as a quotation, the following notes in regard to
the durability of the Gouverneur marble :
The Gouverneur marble was employed at least fifty years ago for
gravestones, and in the Riverside Cemetery, at Gouverneur, these
old gravestones, bearing the dates from 1812 onward, can now be
seen. As compared with the white marble headstones from Ver-
mont it is more durable ; and there is not so luxuriant a growth of
moss and lichen as on the latter stone, but in the case of the older
1 The Commercial Marbles of Western Vermont. U. S. Geol. Survey Bui.
521, 1912, p. 38.
2 Building Stone in New York. N. Y. State Museum Bui. 10, 1890, p. 237.
QUARRY MATERIALS OF XEW YORK l8l
Gouverneur stone some signs of decay and disintegration, par-
ticularly on the tops, are noticeable, and small pieces can be chipped
off with a knife blade. The durability of the stone for building
purposes has been tested in some of the older structures in Gouver-
Marble is heavier than granite and has a specific gravity ranging
from about 2.70 in the case of. calcite varieties to 2.88 for dolomites.
These figures correspond to weights for each cubic foot of from
168 to 180 pounds. The South Dover white marble, a nearly
pure dolomite, has a specific gravity of 2.86 and a weight of 178.5
pounds ; the Gouverneur slightly magnesian blue marble possesses a
specific gravity of 2.74 and a weight of 171 pounds for each
The compressive strength of marble varies within rather wide
limits according to the textural features. Merrill ^ credits the
Pleasantville coarse dolomite with the very high crushing strength
of 22,383 pounds a square inch. The Tuckahoe marble, according
to the same authority, gave a test of 13,076 pounds. Both figures
refer to the strength when tested across the bed. Three samples
of marble from the quarries of the South Dover Mai^ble Co. showed
a minimum compressive strength of 17,401 pounds and a maximum
of 20,882 pounds.^ These results compare well with those obtained
from the best building marbles of other districts.
The Gouverneur marble, represented by a sample from the quar-
ries of the St Lawrence Marble Co., showed a strength under
compression of 12,692 pounds a square inch.^
Tests of transverse and tensile strength are rarely made, though
they afford useful data in estimating the coherence and durability
GEOLOGY OF THE NEW YORK MARBLES
The metamorphic phanerocrystalline limestones, which include all
marbles in the true sense, as already explained, occur only in regions
where the rock formations have been squeezed, folded and up-
raised into mountains. Originally they were horizontally bedded,
common limestones accumulated on the floors of the ancient seas
by the slow aggregation of the shells of organisms that lived in
these waters and in part perhaps by direct chemical precipitation
1 Stones for Building and Decoration. New York, 1897, p. 461.
2 Twentieth Annual Rep't U. S. Geol. Survey, pt 6, cont'd. 1899, p. 422.
3 Op. cit., p. 423.
l82 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
of lime carbonate from solution. The formation of limestone by
similar methods is going on today along the sea coast, as exemplified
by the shell beds, coral reefs and calcareous muds which are widely
distributed and which require only consolidation from the weight of
overlying strata and uplift from the sea to convert them into lime-
stones similar to those exposed in the early Paleozoic formations
of New York State. The deposition of lime carbonate in quantity
also takes place in fresh waters ; the beds of marl found in many
swamps and lake basins of this section are the result of precipita-
tion of lime which has been brought in by tributary streams and
springs, the lime being thrown out of solution sooner or later T)y
evaporation of the waters or through the agency of plant growth.
There are many thousands of acres of these surface marls in the
central and western parts of the State.
The conversion of common limestone into marble requires great
pressure, which in nature is developed through those crustal move-
ments that lead to the formation of folded mountains ; under the
stress thus exerted, accompanied by heat and probably in the pres-
ence of moisture, the lime carbonate behaves like a mobile or plastic
substance and is able to assume its proper crystal character, that
of calcite. Each particle becomes a complete crystal, with the char-
acteristic cleavage, optical properties and other features of calcite,
though owing to the space limitations it can not assume the outward
regularity of form which belongs to calcite when free to expand in
all directions. The change, or metamorphism, is accompanied also
by a rearrangement and crystallization of the impurities, as has
already been noted.
There are two areas in New York where crustal movements have
taken place on a great scale during past geological ages. The
Adirondacks in the north are a part of the old Laurentian highland
which was uplifted in early Precambric time and subjected to great
vicissitudes of compressive folding, faulting and invasions by
igneous rocks before the regular stratified formations began to be
deposited. In the southeast is the Highlands-Taconic region, of
which the Highlands proper represent a part of the old Appalachian
highland of Precambric age, and the Taconic a later uplift that came
at the close of the Ordovicic period.
THE ADIRONDACK SECTION
The crystalline limestones of the Adirondacks appear in belts,
elongated in a general northeast-southwest direction parallel to
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 183
the structural trend, and in smaller patches of variable shape and
extent which have a very unequal distribution. They are rather
abundantly represented on the eastern side in Essex and Warren
counties, but mainly as scattered areas that cover a few square miles
each at most. On the north in Clinton and Franklin counties
are a few outcrops, and these unimportant ; and the same may be
said of the Southern Adirondacks included within Saratoga, Fulton,
Herkimer and Lewis counties. The principal development of the
limestones is on the northwest, in St Lawrence and Jefferson
counties, outside the rugged mountain section but within the Pre-
cambric crystalline formations which here extend outward across
the St Lawrence lowland and connect with the main Canadian ex-
panse of the rocks. Four considerable belts of limestones, besides
numerous smaller lenses and patches, exist in this section as may be
seen by consulting the St Lawrence sheet of the State geologic map.
Detailed information as to their extent and general features has
been given by C. H. Smyth.^ The most important exposure, areally
and economically, has a length northeast and southwest of about 35
miles, extending from the town of Canton, St Lawrence county, to
near Antwerp village in Jefferson county, with a width of from
I to 7 or 8 miles and an area of 175 square miles. A parallel belt
occurs a few miles northwest, about midway between its border
and the St Lawrence river, and has a length of 15 miles, lying in
the towns of Macomb, Hammond and Rossie, St Lawrence county,
and Theresa, Jefferson county. Southwest of the main area is the
Edwards-Fowler belt of St Lawrence county, notable for its talc
deposits. The fourth belt lies farther southeast across the St
Lawrence-Lewis county boundary, being partly in the town of
Pitcairn of the former county and partly in the town of Diana of
the latter. It is about 20 miles long and perhaps 2 or 3 miles wide
as a maximum.
The belts are not wholly constituted of carbonate rocks, but in-
clude more or less quartzite, schist and gneiss which have the
appearance of being interbedded with the limestones. Altogether
the different formations represent the metamorphosed and deeply
eroded remnants of what once must have been an extensive and
varied series of sediments. The series included sandstones now
changed to quartzites, arkose which has become quartzose gneisses,
1 See especially, Report on the Crystalline Rocks of St Lawrence County,
N. Y. State Museum Annual Rep't 49, v. 2, 1898, p. 481-90.
184 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
shales now altered to mica schists, argillaceous limestones that have
become basic gneisses and amphibolites. as well as pure carbonate
materials that are now marbles. The sediments at one time, no
doubt, spread over the whole Adirondack region, and the present
irregular and patchy distribution is the result of extensive erosion
upon the formations which at dilTerent times were also invaded,
broken up and to some extent absorbed by the great igneous masses
which came up from below.
The metamorphosed sediments exhibit very similar features and
relationships wherever found in the x\dirondacks, so that they are
regarded as members of a single geologic series, which is called the
Grenville series from their analogy with the Canadian formations
that bear that name. Little is known as to their time-relations
beyond the fact that they antedate all the other Adirondack rocks,
and consequently must have been laid down very early in the Pre-
cambric period. Subsequent to their deposition, but before the
opening of Camhric time, there was a long era characterized by
intervals of great igneous activity in which granite, .anorthosite,
syenite, ga'bbro and finally diabase were erupted. None of the mem-
bers of the Grenville carries recognizable fossil remains, though the
abundance of graphite in some of the strata, particularly the quartz-
ites, leads to the inference that life existed at the time.
In most of the belts the limestones and the accompanying schists,
quartzites and gneisses are tilted and present their upturned broken
edges at the surface. The angle of inclination is usually high,
dips of less than 30° being exceptional, whereas a nearly vertical
attitude is quite common. The strike is nearly always between
the north and easterly compass points, in most cases nearly north-
east, but is subject to local variations. The beds over large areas
may maintain monoclinal arrangement, with the inclination in the
same direction ; this is the common condition in fact, as few in-
stances have come to notice where the dips of adjacent belts are
in opposite directions. The general high inclination and the pres-
ence of minor folds seem to indicate, however, that the beds are
not simply tilted up by a great monoclinal flexure, but that they have
a much more complicated structure through the presence of anti-
clinal and synclinal folds strongly compressed. The actual rela-
tions that exist in any of the belts can not be stated at the present
time, and it is still uncertain just what the order of the sedimentary
succession may be.
The St Lawrence county belts are much broken by irruptive
masses, of mainly granitic nature. These rocks have a massive to
QUARRV MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 1 85
gneissoid appearance, but lack the schistosity of the Grenville
gneisses, are prevaihng reddish or gray in color and belong mostly
to the biotite and hornblende varieties of granite. They form
bosses of some size and also sills and dikes, while small offshoots
cut through the sedimentary gneisses in a network of interlacing
veins. They exert noticeable contact effects upon the limestones
which in their vicinity may contain such minerals as tourmaline,
vesuvianite oyroxene, tremolite, fluorite etc., often well crystallized.
THE GOUVERNEUR MARBLE
The crystalline limestone in the area about Gouverneur has
furnished most of the marble that has been quarried in the Adiron-
dack region. The area is a part of the belt which extends from
the town of Canton, St Lawrence county, to near Antwerp, in
Jefferson county, and which is traversed for much of the distance
by the R. W. & O. branch of the New York Central Railroad.
The limestone in general is medium to coarse crystalline and white
or light gray in color, but sometimes a dark blue as in one or two
of the quarries. It is a calcite limestone, with a varying but gener-
ally small percentage of magnesia. The carbonates amount to about
95 per cent of the whole mass, of which nearly 90 per cent is
calcium carbonate. Rarely the magnesia assumes sufficient import-
ance to characterize the rock as a dolomite. The change from a
calcite-limestone to dolomite takes place abruptly, but whether it
reflects an original variation in the conditions of deposition or is
due to secondary processes after the strata were laid down, is
not clear. In the former case it would be expected to find the
variation related to the bedded structure, but such relation can not
be established. The occurrence of dolomite is quite local and un-
important as compared to the great body of limestone. On the other
hand, the limestone shows well-marked zones or bands parallel to
the bedding in which quartz is abundant and which seems to be
the result of impurities included when the rock was being deposited.
The following analyses illustrate the chemical composition of the
Gouverneur marbles. No. i is based on a sample from the Extra
Dark quarry of the St Lawrence Marble Quarries ; no. 2. quarry of
the Gouverneur Marble Co ; no. 3, Rylestone quarry ; and no. 4,
Northern New York quarry. No. 5 represents the dolomitic marble,
formerly worked by the White Crystal Marble Co. Nos. i, 2 and 3
are by R. \\'. Jones of the State Museum.
186 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
The Gouverneur marble is quarried from a small area southwest
of that town. The quarries, with few exceptions, lie along a nar-
row belt which extends for a little over a mile in a northeast-south-
west direction. They lie on the outcrop of the " vein " or bed
which dips northwest at an angle ranging from 15° to 30° on the
northeast end to 80° or 90° in the southwesterly quarries. The
vein has a pitch that is toward the southwest at an angle of 20°
or 25°. There is some suggestion in the field relations that the
marble occurs along an overturned pitching fold.
In color and texture the marble shows variety, though the differ-
ences in composition are not especially prominent. It is a mottled
white and grayish blue, or light and dark blue, running in places
to an almost solid dark blue, which is the color most sought for.
In the lighter mottled sorts the grain is moderately coarse and
somewhat uneven, with the lighter and darker calcite segregated
more or less into separate areas. The individual calcite particles
mostly have a diameter from i to 2 mm. In the dark-blue marble,
the grain is much finer, the calcite averaging only a fraction of a
millimeter. The bluish color seems to be traceable to the presence
of graphitic carbon in very small submicroscopic particles. Free
carbon was detected by R. W. Jones in the analyses already given,
but in too small amount to be separately weighed. That the vari-
ation of color conforms more or less closely to the bedding is
evident from a study of the relations revealed in the dififerent
quarries. The lighter colors are found in the overlying beds of
the northwestern section, and the fine-grained dark marble is from
the structurally lower beds on the southeast. This feature has
been confirmed as well by the results of core-drilling.
The marble is susceptible of high polish and has a luster and
texture that resemble some gray granites. It is well adapted for
monumental work and the better grades are used mainly for that
OUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK
purpose. Its weathering qualities are attested by nearly a century
of use as monumental and building stone. For building stone it
has found considerable sale in the large towns and cities "of New
York and adjoining states, especially for public structures, churches
Fig. 14 Map of marble district near Gouverneur. i is Gouverneur; 2, St
Lawrence; 3, Sullivan; 4, Callahan; 5, Extra Dark; 6, Northern New York
and fine residences. In rock face, as used for building stone, the
marble has a medium gray color, whereas the cut or patent ham-
mered surface of trimmings shows much lighter. The selling
prices vary with the color and uniformity.
Determinations of the specific gravity and absorption of the
NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
Gouverneur marble gave the following results : specific gravity,
2.74; corresponding to a weight of 171 pounds to the cubic foot;
ratio of absorption .111 per cent; pore space, .305 per cent.
The St Lawrence Company's quarries
The quarries of this company include two openings near the
mill and railroad track, a little more than a mile southwest of
Gouverneur, and a third lying to the east on a separate vein. The
latter, known as the Extra Dark quarry, alone was in operation
Fig. 15 Gouverneur marble in thin section, showing the irregular boundaries
between the particles and firmly interlocked texture. Enlarged 25 diameters
at the time of the writer's visit in the fall of 1912. It is an open-
ing 125 feet long, 80 feet wide and 20 to 30 feet deep. At the
surface the marble is of medium 'bluish color somewhat mottled
with white, but becomes dark blue below, which is the grade par-
ticularly sought, as the other quarries supply lighter stock. The
beds dip northwest 30° and pitch southwest 25°. Two vertical
joint systems running N. 30° W. and N. 65° E. are in evidence.
As shown in the accompanying illustration, the quarry is crossed
by a vertical trap dike which is left standing as a wall ; the dike
Dark gray marble. Gouverneur
Mottled gray marble. Gouverneur
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 1 89
follows the northeasterly jointing and is from 2 to 3 feet thick,
consisting of a serpentinous groundmass with lath-shaped feldspars.
The two openings near the mill, known as the St Lawrence
quarries, are vertical rock cuts with an area of about 20,000 square
feet each and a depth of 80 feet in the northerly quarry and 40 feet
in the southerly one. They have supplied large quantities of build-
ing marble, of which examples are seen in the First Presbyterian
church, Gouverneur; Grace church, Watertown; Jay Gould Memo-
rial, Roxbury; Third Presb3^terian church, Rochester; and in many
other structures. For building purposes it is mostly used as rock
face ashlar which has a bright gray color. The monumental stock
is mainly the selected darker quality that is sold under the name
"St Lawrence" but includes some lighter stone called "Adirondack."
The beds here dip about 20° to the northwest. They have been
penetrated to a depth of 400 feet in a drill hole near the cutting
The quarry equipment includes six channeling machines, two
gadders and three derricks. The mill has sixteen gangs of saws,
besides rubbing beds, lathes, and polishing machines. Electric
power is used, supplied by the Hailesboro water power plant.
A chemical analysis of the marble from Extra Dark quarry is
found on page 186.
The company states that the marble has a specific gravity of 2.76,
corresponding to a weight of 172 pounds to the cubic foot. The
ratio of absorption is .160.
Gouverneur Marble Company's quarries
The Gouverneur Marble Company owns quarries in the north-
eastern section of the marble belt, adjoining the property of the
St Lawrence company. The principal one is a cut about 250 feet
long and nearly as wide, with a depth of about 50 feet. A new open-
ing 125 feet long and 50 feet wide has been made just southeast
of the large quarry with which it will eventually be connected.
The bedding here dips very low to the northwest. The jointing is
in two systems, N. 40° W. and N. 50° E. which with the floor
seams divide the marble into rectangular blocks. A test hole in
the new quarry penetrated the marble to a depth of 95 feet.
The product runs mostly to the medium and light varieties, but
the new opening shows considerable darker marble from the under-
lying beds. The grain is moderately coarse, with a grain diameter
190 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
of 2 to 3 mm. There is a little phlogopite in small but visible scales
distributed through the carbonates. The marble from these quarries
is often beautifully mottled and such material is used in polished
work. As a building stone it has been employed in many large
structures, notably in the Sacred Heart and St Anthony's churches
in Syracuse, and the high school in Schenectady.
The mill, situated near the quarries, is equipped with eleven gangs
Northern New York Marble Company's quarries
The property of the Northern New York Marble Co. lies in the
southwestern section of the Gouverneur district separated from the
other quarries by a considerable stretch of undeveloped ground.
Its position is east of the extension of the line connecting the more
northerly openings, which indicates that it is on a lower vein struc-
turally than the others. Otherwise there must be a fault or a wide
deviation of the strike in the interval. There is some similarity in
the character of the marble with that of the Extra Dark' quarry of
the St Lawrence company, which lies on the footwall side of the
main belt. The strike of the beds here is N. 70^-80° E. and the
dip 80° north.
The main quarry measures 140 feet by 75 feet at the surface and
is over 200 feet in depth. It has been abandoned on account of
the depth. A second quarry 100 feet south has furnished the recent
output; it is an opening 120 feet long and with a depth of from 40
to 65 feet. In 1912 the development of a third quarry was begun,
situated to the west of the latter, with which it will eventually con-
nect. The quarries are. equipped with two derricks and have the
usual oufit of channelers and gadders.
The marble has a dark blue color for the most part, averaging
much darker than the usual Gouverneur product, and is also finer
textured. The grain diameter ranges from 0.5 to i mm in the
darkest samples. As shown by the analysis on page 186, it is a high
grade magnesian limestone with only about 2 per cent impurities.
The product is sold under the name of " Northern New York "
and is graded according to the presence or absence of lighter veins
or clouds in the dark blue ground. It is mainly in demand for
monumental work. A good proportion of the lighter quality is
hammer-faced, not polished, a finish which gives the appearance of
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK I9I
In' the quarry walls a few knots from silicate inclusions are in
evidence; they rarely exceed a foot in diameter. Open joints and
fissures occur in the upper 15 feet where the marble is more or
less discolored and disintegrated, but below the stone is fresh, uni-
form and little broken by joints. The surface has been polished
and in places is deeply grooved by glacial ice.
The Rylestone quarry
The Rylestone quarry, worked up to a short time ago, lies west
of the main belt, a mile or more, on the side of a low ridge. It
was not operated in 1912 when inspected by the writer. The marble
is bluish gray, with an equal mixture of white and blue calcite.
The grain is fine to medium, the particles ranging from i to
3 mm in diameter. The texture is rather uneven. Apparently there
has been considerable loss in quarrying from the presence of vugs,
which are apt to occur in the midst of an otherwise sound block.
These vugs take the form of small round cavities and of seams a
foot or more long and are lined with crystallized calcite, marcasite
and brown tourmaline.
The quarry face extends along the base of the hill for 100 feet
and is 50 feet high. In the last operations the stone was broken
down by blasting, which has left much waste. A mill equipped with
eight gangs of saws is situated on the property.
Other quarries near Gouverneur
The John J. Sullivan quarry, now closed, is situated 500 feet
west of the St Lawrence quarries. The pit is about 100 feet long
and 50 feet wide. The marble exposed on the edge near the sur-
face is coarse-banded, white and blue, of rather light appearance.
Some of the beds show disseminated scales of mica, tremolite
crystals and other silicates. The quarry equipment has been dis-
mantled and the pit allowed to fill with water.
The Callahan quarry is a small opening near the Extra Dark
quarry of the St Lawrence company. The marble is of medium,
bluish gray color and moderately coarse texture. The quarry was
last worked five or six years ago.
The D. J. Whitney quarries lie near those of the Northern New
York Marble Co. They have yielded considerable quantities of
medium to dark-colored stock, used for monumental work. They
have been inoperative for several years.
The White Crystal Marble Co. opened a quarry about ten years
192 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
ago in the vicinity of Gouverneur for the supply of building
material. The stone has a coarse texture and is pure white. The
analysis on page 186 shows it to be a dolomite. Physical tests
made at the Watertown Arsenal (Mass.) indicated the crushing
strength of one sample to be 25,250 pounds to the square inch ; of
another sample 23,070 pounds to the square inch. This is well
above the average of most marbles, and the stone is probably equal
to any practical requirement in regard to strength. The quarry is
owned by C. A. Lux of Syracuse.
Furnace flux is shipped by Corrigan, McKinney & Co. from a
quarry situated 2^^ miles north of Gouverneur, the output going
to the company's furnace at Charlotte.
FOWLER, ST LAWRENCE COUNTY
A white, coarse dolomitic marble occurs in the town of Fowler as
a part of the belt of crystalline limestones which inclose the talc
beds of that section. An extensive exposure of the brilliant white
stone is found on the Abbott farm just west of the hamlqt of Little
York. It has been worked to some extent by A. B. Scott, principally
for shipment to makers of artificial stone. The marble is free of
stain and can be obtained in large blocks. According to information
supplied by Mr Scott, the stone shows 18 per cent magnesia (MgO)
and about 8 per cent of foreign matter.
CANTON, ST LAWRENCE COUNTY
An active marble-quarrying industry was conducted a few years
since in the northeastern section of the limestone belt, south of
Canton and in some of the small outlying areas of limestone in that
part of St Lawrence county. An account-of some of the later
operations has been given by W. N. Logan.^
The E. E. Stevens quarry is ij^ miles southwest of Canton
village. The stone has a grayish color, with a close resemblance to
gray marble on cut surfaces. The output in the years preceding
1902 was valued at $40,000 annually.
The Nickerson quarry is mentioned by Stevens as containing a
light yellow marble with serpentine inclusions. It is on the Nick-
erson farm 2 miles south of Canton village.
White marble was produced at one time in the Clarkson quarry,
near DeKalb Junction. The output in the last year of operations
is placed by Logan at $15,000.
123d Report of the State Geologist, i'j04, p. :i8-ig.
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK I93
The small area of crystalline limestone near Colton, south of
Potsdam, has been developed in one or two places for marble. One
quarry is situated on the Peter Fallon farm, about 2 miles east of
Colton village, and another on the farm of J. C. Leary in the same
HARRISVILLE, LEWIS COUNTY
Building and monumental marble has been quarried on a small
scale in years past at Harrisville, Lewis county. The quarry
is about 500 feet north of the railroad at the base of a low hill and
consists of an opening 75 feet square. It is an indistinctly banded
grayish marble, light in tone, and rather coarse, with a grain
diameter of i to 3 mm. The banding apparently is a bedding
feature, the darker bands containing a higher percentage of im-
purities than the lighter ones. The direction of the banding is
northeast-southwest and the dip 40° northwest. The impurities,
which consist of serpentine, pyroxene and some sulphides, would
seem to be a drawback to the use of the stone for polished work.
An analysis of an average sample made by R. W. Jones gave the
MgCOs 21 . 79
NATURAL BRIDGE, LEWIS COUNTY
Quarries have been opened in the crystalline limestones in the
vicinity of Natural Bridge for the manufacture of lime. The lime-
stones are coarse, dolomitic and as a rule not adapted for cut stone.
The New York Lime Co. has carried on operations for several
years in a quarry at Sterlin'gbush, north of Natural Bridge, and
also at the latter place and at Bonaparte Lake where the dolomites
attain a degree of purity requisite for lime manufacture. The pro-
duct is mainly sold to pulp manufacturers for use in the sulphite
THE HIGHLANDS — TACONIC AREA
Crystalline limestones occur in many places in the Highlands
region and in the bordering metamorphic area to the north and
south. They are specially prominent on the east side of the Hudson
where they underlie many of the north-south stream valleys of
,194 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
Westchester, Putnam and Dutchess counties, but also occur in
Orange county as a continuation of the northern New Jersey belts.
Those of a thoroughly crystalline character are associated with
schists, quartzites and thin^bedded gneisses, forming a series of
interfolded metamorphosed sediments that bear some resemblance
in certain aspects to the Grenville series of the Adirondacks. Their
stratigraphic position is doubtful ; it would appear that they may
represent more than one period of formation, as indicated by the
varying degree i of metamorphism which they. have undergone.
. in Westchester county the limestone is coarsely crystalline, white,
and usually carries magnesia in proportions characteristic of dolo-
mites, though in the very northern part of the county there are
limestones with low magnesia. The name " Inwood " was first
applied to the limestones by F. J. H. Merrill, who later advocated
the view of the general equivalence of the limestones in this section
with those of western New England and withdrew that name in
favor of the prior term " Stockbridge " limestone. Merrill and
other geologists have regarded the Westchester county limestones
as a southerly extension of the belts that are found north of the
Highlands where they are much less metamorphosed and are known
to be of Cambro-Ordovicic age.
More recently Berkey has indicated the possibility of the ex-
istence of two main series of limestones. The Westchester county
representatives, accompanied by the Lowerre quartzite and Man-
hattan schist, show no marked unconformity with the underlying
gneisses, and are considered as Precambric. The second assemblage
includes the less changed types of white and blue limestones, de-
veloped mainly to the north of the Highlands, which have been
known as the Wappinger limestone and which are associated with
the Poughquag quar'tzite and the Hudsoh River slates. These
shtvw a marked unconformity in contact with the gneiss formation.
Small bands and lenses of impure limestone occur within the High-
lands gneisses, and are probably the oldest of all, that is of Gren-
ville age. The latter have little economic importance.
The crystalline limestones of southeastern ■ New York are pre-
vailingly high in magnesia, though there are some localities where
they carry under 5 per cent. In the developed marble quarries the
stone is usually a true dolomite. The proportion of lime carbonate
ranges from 55 per cent as a lower limit to about 70 per cent, while
tjbie magnesium carbonate amounts to frqm:30 to 45 per cent. The
siliceous impurities are usually low, not over 2 or 3 per cent of the
Dark gray marble. Gouverneur
Green marble ( Ophicalcite ), Moriah, Essex county
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK I95
whole. They are due to inclusions of quartz, mica, tremolite,
diopside and more rarely tourmaline.
The building marbles are found in the more massive, heavily
bedded parts of the formations. They are predominantly white,
either a uniform brilliant white, or white clouded or banded with
blue. They are used both for exterior and interior work. Ex-
amples of their architectural employment may be seen in many
large structures in New York City, especially among the buildings
erected twenty or more years ago, as at that time the Westchester
county stone enjoyed greater favor among architects than any other
In durability, the dolomitic marbles from southeastern New York
show considerable variation, as has been remarked in the discussion
of weathering qualities. Some of the stone is ill-adapted to build-
ing purposes on account of the fact that certain phases show a
sugary, loosely bonded texture and decay rapidly when exposed to
the elements. It is unfortunate that such stone should ever have
been employed in buildings. On the other hand, the product of
many of the quarries has proved, under the rather trying conditions
of the eastern cities, to be an excellent architectural stone, equal in
weathering qualities to any of the other marbles in common use.
Rapid weathering apparently does not result from any peculiarities in
the composition of the stone, but depends upon a lack of coherence
and compactness whereby the mechanical influences of frost and
temperature changes are enabled to destroy the bond. Normally,
dolomite is harder and more resistent to the attack of solvents than
DOVER PLAINS, DUTCHESS COUNTY
Marble for building and ornamental purposes was once quarried
near Dover Plains. The ledges may be seen along the east side of
Tenmile creek southeast of the town. One of them is now the site
of an active quarry which is worked by the Dutchess County Lime
Co. for the manufacture of lime. The stone is a fine but rather
loosely grained dolomite, blue or white in color, and quite free of
silicates. The dolomite grains are round and not firmly welded, so
that they weather out readily when the stone is exposed to the
atmosphere. The beds in this section strike about N. 10° E. and
stand on edge or are inclined to the east at an angle of 80° to 85°,
The color changes abruptly from white to blue across the strike,
apparently with the different beds. With its low percentage of
soluble matter (2 to 3 per cent), the stone is well adapted for
making magnesian lime.
NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
WINGDALE, DUTCHESS COUNTY
South Dover Marble Company's quarries
The South Dover Marble Co. has large marble quarries 2 milej
in a direct line northeast of Wingdale station on the Harlem Rail-
Fig. 16 Map of South Dover quarries, i is South Dover; 2, Dover White
road. The belt of crystalline limestone in which lie the quarries
stretches along the flanks of a broad gneiss ridge which extends
Upper quarry of the South Dover Marble Company. Wingdale
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK I97
north and south on the New York-Connecticut bouiidary. The sur-
face is flat or sHghtly hilly in contrast with the rugged outcrop of
the gneiss. The limestone maintains a nearly uniform course
slightly east of north and shows usually an easterly inclination, but
for short distances the dip may change to the west. Along with
the limestone appears a white quartzite that may be seen a little to
the west of the quarry openings.
The product of the quarries is a uniform white marble suited for
building and interior work. The grain is fine ; the particles
average from .75 to i mm diameter and are prismatic or subrounded
in form. In the exposed beds the marble appears very compact and,
except for the upper few feet just below the soil, is neither stained
nor weathered. Its appearance in thin section is shown in figure 17.
Physical tests indicate a specific gravity of 2.86, ratio of absorp-
tion .144 per cent, and pore space .51 per cent. The weight is
[78.5 pounds to the cubic foot. Strength tests made by Prof. Ira H.
Woolson in the laboratories of the School of Mines, Columbia
University, gave ultimate resistances to compression of 17,401
pounds to the square inch on one sample, 18,836 on another and
20,882 on a third, tested on the bed.^ An analysis supplied by the
company indicates that the lime and magnesia occur in the propor-
tions of a true dolomite.
Loss and undet .56
The company has two quarries, the one being on the east slope of
a low ridge facing the gneiss ridge and the second a little farther
up the slope and northwest of the first. The lower quarry has an
extreme length of 250 feet, a width of 150 feet as a maximum and
a depth of 135 feet. There are three derricks in place. The other
opening is 150 feet long, 75 feet wide and about 60 feet deep. It
has two derricks and an overhead cableway, the latter for carrying
^ U. S. Geol. Surv. 20th Ann. Rep't, pt 3, p. 422.
198 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
the waste to the dump. Both openings extend downward vertically,
both with the bedding, which dips easterly about 40° in the south
quarry and westerly 50° to 60° in the north, the dip reversing
within a distance of 100 feet. There are few open joints or fissures,
though one rather conspicuous opening in the southern quarry ex-
tends to a depth of 50 feet. There are occasional bunches of sili-
cates and a little pyrite appears on some of the joint surfaces.
Fig. 17 South Dover marble in thin section. Enlarged 10 times
The South Dover Marble Co. has a cutting and polishing works
at Wingdale station with which the quarries are connected by an
electric tram. The product has been used in many large structures
in New York and the eastern cities, and is one of the standard
architectural materials of this countyr Some of the important
buildings in which it may be seen are the Tiffany Building, Blair
Building, Stock Exchange (interior). Masonic Temple and Charles
Building in New York, Essex County court house in New Jersey,
Munsey Building and House of Representatives office building in
Dover White Marble Company's quarry
The quarry recently worked by the Dover White Marble Co. lies
on the east bank of Tenmile creek ij^ miles northwest of the South
Dover Company's quarry. It is a small side-hill opening in a white
dolomitic marble which is streaked or banded with gray. The bands
consist of quartz and sericitic layers, arranged parallel to the
Dover white marble. Wingdale, Dutchess county
Black marble. Glens Falls
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK I99
bedding. They are somewhat wavy when seen in cross-section, as
they have been subjected to powerful compression during the up-
lifting of the beds which stand nearly on end. The strike is about
north and south and the dip 80° east. The bedding joints have
been healed by flowage and crystallization of the carbonates, though
still obscured in places as blind checks and seams. The marble has
a fine grain with average diameters of less than .5 mm. The pro-
duct has been employed mainly for veneer and wainscoting, for
which purpose it is shown across the bedding so as to bring out
the banding. The quarries were closed in 19 12.
turner's corners, PUTNAM COUNTY
A gray marble was quarried at one time near Turner's Corners.
The stone is rather coarse and in the outcrop shows a crumbly loose
grain. It was employed in the dam at Sodus on the Croton water
PEEKSKILL, WESTCHESTER COUNTY
A magnesian limestone of considerable purity and white to gray
in color is found along Sprout Brook valley, north of Peekskill. It
has been worked to some extent for lime, notably on the Frost
place where there is a quarry and kiln, now idle. A sample of the
stone selected to afford an average of the whole quarry face showed
the following results, as reported to the writer by T. M. Williams
(H. D. Gehret, analyst) :
The crystalline limestone continues northward into Putnam
county and outcrops in force on the Couch, Slater and Barrett
farms, in some places possessing a uniform white color and even
texture Hke the best marbles of this region. The stone differs from
the latter, however, in it relatively small magnesia content.
Another analysis of the stone from the Couch farm, by H. D.
Gehret, showed :
20O NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
MgCOs 10. 00
OSSINING, WESTCHESTER COUNTY
The locality at Ossining has interest as affording structural
marble for several buildings, including the State Hall at Albany.
The quarries are situated in the yard of the State prison. The
marble is a white or gray dolomite, rather crumbly in texture, and
hence not well adapted for exterior work.
The Ossining Lime Co. has a flux and lime quarry south of the
village near the railroad. The stone contains about 20 per cent
magnesia, as shown by the following analysis :
CaO 31 40
WHITE PLAINS, WESTCHESTER COUNTY
A quarry about a mile north of White Plains and just west of
the Harlem Railroad has been worked as a source of material for
lime and crushed stone. It is known as the James O'Connell
quarry. An analysis by Huntington gives the following com-
PLEASANTVILLE, WESTCHESTER COUNTY
A white dolomitic marble that is found near Pleasantville has
supplied considerable building material for New York City and the
1 Eckel. " The Quarry Industrj^ in Southeastern New York." 20th Report
N. Y. State Geologist, 1902, p. 172.
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 20T
towns along the Hudson river. There are several quarries, now
abandoned, of which those formerly worked by the Snowflake
Marble Co. have been the principal sources of architectural marble.
The beds of the best quality measure about lOO feet thick and stand
in vertical position; they are pure white, with very little foreign
matter. The grain is extremely coarse, so that on a fractured sur-
face the cleavage planes of the dolomite appear as large rhombic
mirrorlike faces. A specimen in the State Museum collections has
an average grain diameter of 8-10 mm. The texture is close and
well knit, the dry stone absorbing only .15 per cent of water, ac-
cording to Smock. The specific gravity is 2.87 and the weight 179
pounds to the cubic foot. Determinations of crushing strength by
General Gilmore gave a maximum of 24,825 and a minimum of
18,750 pounds to the square inch from six tests. The following
analyses illustrate the chemical composition of the marble:
Si02 2.31 .10 .29
Mg-COs 36.80 45-04 43-11
CaCOa 59-84 54-12 54-8o
Total 99.60 99-44
. Analysis no. i is by H. Ries ;^ no. 2 by C. F. Chandler ;- and
no. 3 by F. A. Wilber.^
The stone is too coarse for sawed or polished work. Its archi-
tectural quality may be observed in St Patrick's Cathedral (lower
walls) in New York and the Methodist Episcopal Church in
TUCKAHOE, WESTCHESTER COUNTY
A very active quarry industry was centered a few years ago at
Tuckahoe. There are several openings in a narrow belt of dolomitic
marble which extends in a north-northeast direction and is inclosed
by Fordham gneiss on the west and the Manhattan schist on the
east. The marble beds range from 40 or 50 feet to 100 feet or more
in width. Their outcrop is marked by a surface depression between
the ridges of harder rocks.
1 N. Y. State Museum Bui. 44, 1901, p. 832.
2 U. S. Geol. Surv. 20th Annual Rep't, pt VI, 1899, p. 42;
3 N. Y. State Museum Bui. 10, 1890, table facing p. 358.
202 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
One of the leading quarries for architectural stone is that last
operated by the Waverly Marble Co., which suspended work in
1908, and previously operated in succession by Norcross Bros.,
A. T. Stewart and by A. Maxwell. It is an open pit 600 feet long,
150 feet wide, and 75 feet deep. A large part of the excavation
afforded material suitable for architectural use, which may be seen
in some of the large structures in New York, Boston and other
cities. Among the more recent buildings that have been erected
from the marble are those of the New York and Metropolitan Life
Companies in New York. It is a coarse, brilliant white dolornite,
very hard and almost devoid of silicate impurities except for oc-
casional mica scales. The texture is very close ; the grains have
rhombic and irregular sections and range in diameter from i to
5 mm. It is thoroughly massive in appearance.
Since the quarries have been closed some marble has been shipped
from the stock piles and the waste also has been employed in the
manufacture of artificial stone. The Emerson-Norris Co. of New
York has a plant at the quarries for making all kinds of artificial
building stone, for which the white marble serves as the basis.
The Tuckahoe or Young's quarry lies in the center of the de-
veloped section. It is a cut 600 feet long and 100 feet in maximum
width. The stone resembles the product from the Waverly quarry
but is somewhat coarser. The quarry has furnished material lately
for crushed stone for use in white concrete. The Kapailo Manu-
facturing Co. pumped out the workings in 1912 and have carried on
work in a small way.
The Masterton or New York quarry lies on the south end and
consists of two openings. It was very actively worked in the sixties
and seventies of the last century. Of late years it has supplied
material for making lime and marble dust. A polished sample in
the State Museum collections shows a coarse, white dolomite with
brownish inclusions of tremolite more or less completely altered to
talc. The stone contains lime and magnesia in the proportions of
true dolomite. Its specific gravity is 2.87, equivalent to 178 pounds
to the cubic foot. The dry material, according to Smock, absorbs
0.14 per cent water. The following chemical analyses are based
on the material of this quarry, but exemplify the general character
of Tuckahoe marble.
I 2 3
Fe203 .21 .21
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 203
MgO 21.25 20.71 20.77
CaO 30.16 j:: 30.63
CO2 47.3 46.66
Insol 1.33 ,91
Analysis no. i is by W. F, Hillebrand ; no. 2 by P. deP. Ricketts ;
no. 3 by F. A. Wilber.
Several kinds of unmetamorphosed limestones that occur in the
State have been used for ornamental stones and may be included
with the marbles for purposes of description.
The Paleozoic limestones at Glens Falls, which are exposed in
cliffs on both sides of the Hudson river, contain at their base a
thick-bedded, fine-grained black limestone of Black River age.
The layer is about 12 feet thick. The overlying limestones and
shaly layers belong to the lowermost Trenton beds and are known as
the Glens Falls limestone. The thicker and finer limestones are
quarried for lime, building stone and other purposes, while the
black layer yields also a good black marble. When polished, the
latter shows a dense uniform black surface, scarcely distinguishable
in appearance from the best of the imported black marbles. It is
hard and very fine in grain. Large quantities were quarried and
cut at one time, but the demand has fallen off in recent years. The
stone was used largely for floor tiling, for which it was well
adapted on account of its good wearing qualities and permanency
of color. It has been made also into mantels, wainscoting, table
tops and other interior decorative work. The principal shipper of
late years has been Finch, Pruyn Si Co. who use the materials also
for lime and crushed stone. Smock states that the black marble
has a specific gravity of 2.718 and weighs 169.4 pounds to the cubic
foot. G. P. Merrill gives crushing tests on limestone from Glens
Falls which may refer to the black layer, although not so stated.
The strength on the bed was 11,475 pounds and on the edge 10,750
pounds to the square inch.
WILLSBORO POINT, ESSEX COUNTY
A fine black limestone is found in the Chazy beds which underlie
the long neck of land that projects into Lake Champlain from the
20^: NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
Essex county shore. The beds contain from i6 to i8 feet of work-
able limestone, well adapted for building material, mostly of a gray
or bluish gray color. Examples of the architectural use of the
limestone are to be seen in the Reformed Church on Swan street,
Albany, the eastern foundations and subbasement of the State
Capitol, in the Brooklyn Bridge piers and other structures. The
black layers were employed for ornamental work. A polished
specimen in the collections of the State Museum shows that the
stone is somewhat coarser than the Glens Falls material, with visible
particles of crystalline calcite, but the color is rather a bluish black
than a dense jet black. The quarries have not been worked in
Quarries at Bluff Point, south of Plattsburg, supply an excellent
" shell " marble which is found in the Chazy formation. The stone
consists of fossil fragments, mostly rounded red and pink particles
which have been derived from crinoid stems, with dark fragments
of brachiopods in less abundance. The red particles measure from
2 to 5 mm in diameter. The fossils are inclosed in a gray groundmass
that shows many glistening calcite cleavages, the texture being partly
crystalline, thus approaching that of a true marble. As a conse-
quence of this texture the stone takes a good polish, and the vari-
colored fossils lend an ornamental effect which is quite attractive.
It has been sold as " Lepanto " marble, mainly for use in interior
decoration. The quarries are now worked by the Vermont Marble
Co. and the product is shipped to that company's works for cutting
and polishing. In character the stone is a high-grade calcium lime-
stone, containing 95 or 96 per cent calcium carbonate, about 3 per
cent magnesium carbonate and i per cent or a little more of silica,
alumina and iron oxides. The specific gravity is 2.71 and the
weight 169 pounds to the cubic foot. Smock states that it absorbs
0.145 psr cent of Avater.
CATSKILL AND HUDSON
The Becraft limestone in the Hudson valley contains beds of
highly fossiliferous character, with a subcrystalline texture, that
have been quarried to some extent for decorative material. The
stone is gray in color, with round and crescentic fragments of crin-
oids replaced by white calcite. The quarries near the Hudson are
now producing material for Portland cement, but the George
Holdridge quarries at Catskill are worked for building and oma-
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 205
mental material according to demand. The stone contains upwards
of 95 per cent of lime carbonate and is well adapted for building
stone, lime, cement and furnace flux.
The lowermost layers of the Lockport dolomite are represented
by a variegated red and gray material with fossil fragments 2 or 3
inches long. In polished condition it is quite attractive, but less
even in texture than the Chazy marble. There has been no pro-
duction of the stone for ornamental uses reported in recent years ;
a specimen in the State Museum collections from the quarries of
D. J. Carpenter indicates a sound material well suited for building
SERPENTINOUS MARBLES; VERDE ANTIQUE AND OPHICAL-
The Grenville limestones of the Adirondacks not infrequently
carry more or less serpentine, which results from the alteration of
anhydrous magnesian silicates of the pyroxene and amphibole
groups. With abundant, evenly distributed serpentine there results
a mottled green and white stone that possesses an attractive ap-
pearance and that has been used for ornamental purposes. A de-
scription of these marbles has been given by G. P. Merrill.^
At Moriah and Port Henry, in Essex county, in this State, there
has been quarried from time to time under the name- of white
marble, a peculiar granular stone consisting of an intricate mixture
of serpentine, dolomite and calcite interspersed with small flakes
of phlogopite. This stone, which is an altered dolomitic and
pyroxenic limestone, seems mainly free from the numerous dry
seams and joints that prove so objectionable in most serpentines,
and can be obtained in sound blocks of fair size. The serpentinous
portions are deep green in color, while the calcareous granules are
faint blue, or whitish, affording a very pleasing contrast. Blocks
being quarried at the time of my visit (1888) showed, however, a
very even granular texture of nearly equal parts of serpentine,
calcite and dolomite in grains of from one-eighth to one-fourth of
an inch in diameter, forming an aggregate quite granitic in appear-
ance at a slight distance. The stone polishes well, and is said to
be durable. In the quarry bed, where the stone had been exposed
for ages, it was noticed that the calcite had weathered out on the
surface, leaving the serpentine protruding in small greenish knobs.
The stone has been quoted in some of the older quarry price lists
at $6 a cubic foot for the best monumental stock.
1 Stone for Building and Decoration, 1897, p. 65.
NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
The principal difficulty in the production of the stone for the
market has been to secure an even quality, as the serpentine has a
tendency to gather in bunches and stringers which look like the
knots in granites.
Some of the larger occurrences of the serpentinous marble are in
the vicinity of Port Henry, Essex county.
The J. E. Reed quarry is 6 miles due west of Port Henry, in the
town of Moriah, near the precipitous hill known as Broughton ledge.
The beds are exposed for a vertical distance of 25 feet and in blocks
up to 5 feet thick. They show a rather uniform mixture of car-
bonates and serpentines, with here and there a band of pure serpen-
tine from a few inches to several feet long. The bands are bent and
Fig. 18 Serpentinous marble, Reed quarry, Port Henry. Enlarged 10 times
twisted in a most complex way. A small fault cuts through the
exposure and on the north side of it the stone is more broken. The
limestone outcrops 200 feet east of the quarry site and also on the
property of S. A. Foote, one-half of a mile farther east. The
quarry was last worked about twenty years ago. The product was
used for monuments, several of which are to be seen in the Port
Henry cemetery, and to some extent for coping and lintels. When
exposed long to the weather the serpentine particles are brought in
relief through the more rapid solution of the carbonates. The stone
is better adapted for interior decoration than outside work.
QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK 20/
The Treadway quarry lies about a mile north of Port Henry on
the brook which flows into Lake Champlain at Craig harbor. The
opening shows lo to 15 feet of the limestone.
Another quarry is north of the Cheever iron mine along the
highway on property now owned by the Cheever Iron Ore Co. Two
pits are to be seen on either side of the road, the one to the east
exposing 15 feet of rock which shows many streaks of serpentine.
A quarry was once worked in the town of Thurman, Warren
county. According to G. P. Merrill ^ the stone contains about equal
parts of snow-white calcite and light yellowish-green serpentine in
particles from one-sixteenth to one-fourth of an inch diameter.
The texture is not very uniform.
Serpentinous limestones are found in numerous other localities
in the Adirondack region, notably in the limestone areas in Essex,
Warren and St Lawrence counties.
Serpentine unmixed with calcite is exposed over a large area on
Staten Island. The rock lacks the translucency and rich color
which are seen in the ornamental varieties, being usually dark
green to nearly black, and stained by iron oxides. It carries black
specks of chromite. The serpentine forms the central ridge of hills
from St George on the north to a little beyond Richmond. On the
borders the serpentine is mixed more or less with talc and tremolite,
but in the interior contains little of the silicates, although there may
be a few undecomposed remnants of pyroxene, olivine and amphibole
which are the parent minerals of the serpentine. Originally the
rock seems to have been a nonfeldspathic aggregate that most
resembles the basic igneous types of the pyroxenite-peridotite
group.- In most places it is badly fractured, being traversed by
narrowly spaced joints and showing more or less differential move-
ment along them, as a result probably of expansion of the mass in
Serpentine also outcrops on Davenport's Neck at New Rochelle
and near Rye, Westchester county.
An occurrence of serpentine in northern Essex county has been
the source of much handsome material for museums, but has not
been worked on a commercial scale. The serpentine occurs along
the sides of a ravine just west of Port Douglas on the road to
Keeseville. It is found only within the ravine, as above it is con-
1 Op. cit. p. 66.
2 The derivation of the serpentine is discussed by the writer in School
of Mines Quarterly, v. 22, 1901.
2o8 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
cealed by beds of Potsdam sandstone. The rock is a compact
lustrous serpentine of light green color with scattered grains of
black iron ore and flecks and clouds of the red oxide. The appear-
ance is quite ornamental and such as to make the serpentine well
adapted for polished work if sufficiently large pieces were obtain-
able. In the exposed section the rock is badly broken so that only
blocks of small size can be secured, but it is quite likely that better
material would be found deeper in the bank beyond the limits of
Abrasion of stones, 44
Absorption of rock, 42
Adirondacks, basic rocks in, 144;
crystalline limestone, 182-85 ; east-
ern, granitic rocks in, 90-92;
geology, 51 ; western, granitic
rocks in, 79-82
Alexandria Bay area, yj
American Feldspar & Milling Co.,
Anorthosite, 22, 51, 60-61, 91 ; Au-
sable Forks, 96; Keeseville, 98-101;
Split Rock 102
Ashley quarry, 165
Ausable Forks, anorthosite area, 96;
red granite, 97; syenite area, 92-
Ausable Granite Company, quarry,
Barrett Manufacturing Company,
Basic rocks in the Adirondacks, 144
Becker, cited, 17
Bedford, pegmatite, 171
Bedford Feldspar Co., quarry, 173
Beekman quarry, 127
Beekmantown limestone, 54; perme-
Berkey, C. P., cited, 22, 52
Black River limestone, 55
Bluestone, 11, 21, 56
Breakneck ridge, quarries on, 108
Bullock quarry, 174
Campbell quarry, 131
Canton, marble, 192
Carnes, F. G., quarries, 95
Catskill limestone quarries, 204
Cement industry, 9
Chazy limestone, 54; permeability,
Chemical composition of rocks, 24,
Chestertown, pegmatite, :66
Chicago Granite Company, quarry,
Clements', Charles, quarry, 95
Clinton shale, 56
Cobleskill limestone, 56
Color of rocks, 30-32
Corinth, pegmatite, 168
Cornell quarry, 119
Cortlandt basic rocks, 149-50
Crown Point, pegmatite. 161
Crown Point Spar Company, quarry,
Crushing strength, 44
Crystalline limestone, Highlands,
193 ; of the Adirondacks, 182-85
Crystalline silicate rocks, 58-69
Gushing, H. P. cited, 69, 71
Dale, T. N., cited, 17, 23, 180
Dannemora granite area, 102
De Kalb, pegmatite, 169
Delesse, M. A., cited, yj
Denesia property, 170
Diabase, 63-64, 91 ; Palisades, 151
Diabase dike, 147
Diana-Pitcairn syenite, 87-89
Dickinson, H. T., cited, 8, 21
Differential parting, 21
Dover Plains, marble, 195
Dover White Marble Company,
Duell & Holloway quarry, 135
NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
Eckel, E. C, cited, 8, 122
Edinburg, pegmatite, 166
Empire State Granite Company,
Examination and testing of stone,
Faillace quarry, 131
Feldspar minerals, 156-57
Fenano quarry, 136
Fine, pegmatite, 171
Fine-Pitcairn granite area, 82-87
Fire, resistance to, 45
Flagstone, 9, 21
Fordham banded gneiss, 132-37
Forsythe quarry, ']2,
Fort Ann, dikes, 149; pegmatite, 165
Fowler, marble, 192; pegmatite, 170
Gabbro, 51, 62-63, 82, 91
Garrison granite boss, 109
Glens Falls, marbles, 203
Gloversville, granite, 106
Gneisses, 15, 64-65, 69
Gordon quarry, 166
Gouverneur, quarries near, 191
Gouverneur marble, 185-88
Go'uverneur Marble Company, quar-
Granite, 15, 17, 51, 5S-60, 70, 91 ;
Alexandria Bay area, "JT, Danne-
mora, 102; field occurrence, 69;
Fine-Pitcairn, 82-87 ; Gloversville.
106; gneissoid. Storm King, 107;
Grindstone Island, 70; Horicon,
105; in Orange county, 138;
Peekskill, 112; Picton Island area,
74-77; near Ramapo, 138; red,
Ausable Forks, 97; red, Parish-
ville, 89; Round Island, iii; St
Lawrence River, 69-74; White
Lake, 107; Wilton, 103-05; Yonkers
Granitic rocks in Eastern Adiron-
dacks, 90-92; in the Western
Adirondacks, 79-82; in the High-
lands section, 107
Greenfield quarry, 148
Grindstone Island granite, 70
Guelph dolomite, 56; permeability,
Hackett quarry, 126
Hardness of stones, 42
Harrison diorite, 130-32
Harrisville, marble, 193
Highlands, crystalline limestone, 193;
granitic rocks, 107
Hirschwald, J., cited, 38, 39
Hobby quarry, 174
Horicon, granite, 105
Hudson, limestone quarries, 204
Hudson River formation, 55
Hudson River slates, 53
Inwood limestone, 53
Iron, manufacture, 9
Jones, R. W., acknowledgments to, 8
iw. PI .
Keeseville anorthosite area, 98-101
Kelly quarry, 72
Kensico quarry, 128-30
King's quarry, 109
Kinkel, P. H. & Sons, quarry, 171
Ladentown trap, 152
Leopold, J. & Company, quarry,
Lime, manufacture, 9
Limestone, 9, 10, 11, 21, 27, 28; chem-
ical analysis, 24
Little Falls, crystalline rocks, 145
Little Falls dolomite, 54
Little Falls Stone Company, quarry,
Lockport dolomite, 56, 205
Lowerre quartzite, 53
Lowville limestone, 55
McCourt, W. E., cited, 47
Manhattan schist, 53, 137-38
Manlius limestone, 56
INDEX TO QUARRY MATERIALS OF NEW YORK
Marbles, general character, 176; ge-
ology, 181-82 ; in Adirondacks, 182-
193; mineral constituents, 177;
nonmetamorphic, 203 ; physical
properties, 181; texture, 178;
weathering qualities, 179; in High-
lands Taconic area, 193-203
Mayfield, pegmatite, 168
Medina sandstone, 55, 56; permeabil-
Merrill, G. P., cited, 99, 205
Microscopic examination of rocks,
Millstone Hill quarry, 119
Mineral composition, 25
Mohegan granite, 112
Mohegan Granite Company, quarries,
Moore quarry, 93
Mount Adam quarries, 139
Mount Defiance quarry, 165
Mount Eve quarries, 139
Natural Bridge, crystalline lime-
Natural cement, manufacture, 9
Newark shales, 57
Niagara formations, 56
Niagara limestone, permeability, 42
Nichols quarry, 135
Northern New York Marble Com-
pany, quarries, 190
Oneida conglomerate, 56
Onondaga limestone, 56
Orange county, granite and gneiss in,
138; Pegmatitic granite in, 143
Oriskany sandstone, 56
Ossining, marble, 200
Oswego sandstone, 55
Palisades diabase. 151-52
Parishville red granite, 89
Parks, cited, 2^^ 42
Peekskill, magnesian limestone, 199
Peekskill granite, 112
Pegmatite, 66-68; local distribution,
160-75 ; occurrence, 154-60 ; uses
Penfield Pond, pegmatite, 164
Perri quarry, 126
Physical tests of stone, 39
Picton Island Red Granite Company,
Plattsburg, marble, 204
Pleasantville, marble, 200
Pochuck Mountain quarries, 141
Port Richmond, diabase, 153
Potsdam sandstone, 28, 54; perme-
Poughquag quartzite, 53
Prospect Hill quarries, 98
Quarry industry, development, 8-1 1
Quartzites, 15, 27
Ramapo, Granite near, 138
Reilly quarry, 134
Resistance to fire, 45
Ries, H., cited, 8
Roberts quarry, 120
Rochester shale, 56
Rocks, absorption, 42 ; origin and
Roe's quarry, 163
Rondout limestone, 56
Rosiwal. August, cited, 27
Round Island granite, iii
Rowland property, 169
Russo quarry, 127
Rylestone quarry, 191
St. Lawrence Company, quarries,
St Lawrence River granites, 69-74
Sandstones, 15, 21, 27; chemical an-
Saratoga Trap Rock Company,
Schists, 15, 64-65
Scott property, 171
Serpentine, 15, 65
Serpentinous marbles, 205
Shales, 15, 27
Shawangunk mountains, 57
Smock, John C, cited, 7, 39, 71, 180
Smyth, C. H. jr, cited, 82, 87, 183
NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM
South Dover Marble Company, quar-
Specific gravity and vireight, 40
Split Rock anorthosite area, 102
Storm King gneissoid granite, 107
Storm King mountain, quarries on,
Strength of rocks, 32-33
Strength of stones, 44
Sufifern trap, 153
Syenite, 51, 60-61, 82, 91 ; Ausable
Forks, 92-96; Diana-Pitcairn, 87-
Syenite Trap Rock Company, quarry,
Tensile strength, 44
Testing of stone, 33
Texture of rocks, 28-30
Thurso, quarries near, 73
Ticonderoga, pegmatite, 164
Toughness of stones, 42
Trap, 63-64 ; dikes, 82 ; field occur-
rence, 69; Fort Ann, 149; Laden-
Trenton limestone, 55
Tribes Hill limestone, 54
Tuckahoe, marble, 201
Turner's Corners, marble, 199
Tyrell quarry, 168
Verde antique, 205
Wappinger limestone, 53
War of stones, 44
West Point gneiss quarries, 142
White, C. B., quarry, loi
White Lake, granite, 107
White Plains, marble, 200
Willsboro Point, limestone, 203
Wilson Brown quarry, 166
Wilton, granite, 103-5
Wingdale, marble, 196
Yonkers gneiss, 53
Yonkers gneissoid granite, 121-30
The University of the State of New York
New York State Museum
John M. Clarke, Director
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82 " 142
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96 " 156
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99 Paleontology I59
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loi Paleontology 161
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104 " 164
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Director's report for 1908
Director's report for 1909
Director's report for 1910
Director's report for 1911
Director's report for 191 2
Director's report for 1913
Director's rsport for 1914
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48, V. 1
57. V. I, pt 2
1 1 9-2 1
61, V. I
64. V. 2
SO, V. I
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61, V. 2
6S, V, 2
51. V. I
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61, V. I
6s, V. 2
52, V. I
S8, V. I
6 1 , V. 2
6s, V. 2
53. V. I
58, V. 2
62, V. 3
6s, V. I
54. V. I
58, V. s
62, V. I
6S, V. I
54. V. 2
58, V. 4
62, V. 2
6S. V. I
54. V. 3
58, V. 3
62, V. 3
6s, V. 2
54. V. 4
S8. V. 4
62, V. 2
6S, V. I
55. V. I
58. V. 3
62, V. I
66, V. 2
56, V. 4
58, V. 2
62, V. 2
66, V. I
56, V. 1
58, V. 4
63, V. I
66, V. 2
S6, V. 3
58, V. I
63, V. 2
66, V. I
56, V. I
58, V. s
63. V. I
56, V. 3
59, V. 2
63. V. 1
56, V. I
59, V. I
63. V. 2
49, V. 3
S6, V. 4
59. V. 2
63. "V. I
S3, V. 2
56, V. 2
59, V. I
63, V. 2
57, V. 3
S6. V. 3
59, V. 2
63, V. 2
5 7. V. 4
56. V. 2
59. V. I
63, V. 2
8, pt I
59. V. 3
56, V. 4
60, V. 2
64, V. 2
8. pt 2
59, V. 4
56, V. 3
60, V. 3
64, V. I
9, pt I
60, V. 4
56, V. 2
60, V. I
64, V. I
9, pt 2
62, V. 4
57. V. I,
60, V. 2
64, V. 2
60, V. 5
57, V. I,
60, V. I
64, V. 2
61, V. 3
57, V. 2
60, V. 3
64, V. I
12, pt I
6^, V. 3
57. V. I,
60, V. I
64, V. 2
12, pt 2
66, V. 3
57. V. 2
60, V. 2
64, V. 2
63, V. 4
57, V. I,
60, V. I
64, V. 2
14, V. I
65, V. 3
57, V. I
60, V. 3
64, V. 2
14. V. 2
65, V. 4
57, V. 2
60, V. I
The figures at the beginning cf ^ach entry in the following list indicate its number as a
Geology and Paleontology. 14 Kemp, J. F. Geology of Moriah and West-
port Townships, Essex Co., N. Y., with notes on the iron mines. 38p,
il. 7pl. 2 maps. Sept. 1895. Free.
19 Merrill, F. J. H. Guide to the Study of the Geological Collections of
the New York State Museum. i64p. iigpl. map. Nov. 1898. Out of print.
21 Kemp, J. F. Geology of the Lake Placid Region. 24p. ipl. map. Sept,
34 Cumings, E. R. Lower Silurian System of Eastern Montgomery County;
Prosser, C. S. Notes on the Stratigraphy of Mohawk Valley and Sara-
toga County, N. Y. 74p. i4pl. map. May 1900. 15c.
39 Clarke, J. M.; Simpson, G. B. & Loomis, F. P. Paleontologic Papers i.
72p. il. i6pl. Oct. 1900. ISC.
Contents: Clarke, J. M. A Remarkable Occurrence of Orthoceras in the Oneonta Beds of
the Chenango Valley, N. Y.
Paropsonema cryptophya; a Peculiar Echinoderm from the Intumescens-zone
(Portage Beds) of Western New York.
Dictyonine Hexactinellid Sponges from the Upper Devonic of New York.
The Water Biscuit of Squaw Island, Canandaigua Lake, N. Y.
Simpson, G. B. Preliminary Descriptions of New Genera of Paleozoic Rugose Corals.
Loomis, F. B. Siluric Fungi from Western New York.
42 Ruedemann, Rudolf. Hudson River Beds near Albany and their Taxo-
nomic Equivalents. ii6p. 2pl. map. Apr. 1901. 25c.
45 Grabau, A. W. Geology and Paleontology of Niagara Falls and Vicinity.
286p. il. i8pl. map. Apr. 1901. 65c; cloth, 90c.
48 Woodworth, J. B. Pleistocene Geology of Nassau County and Borough
of Queens. 58p. il. 8pl. map. Dec. 1901. 25c.
49 Ruedemann, Rudolf; Clarke, J. M. & Wood, Elvira. Paleontologic
Papers 2. 24op. i3pl. Dec. 1901. Out of print.
Contents: Ruedemann, Rudolf. Trenton Conglomerate of Rysedorph Hill.
Clarke, J. M. Limestones of Central and Western New York Interbedded with Bitumi-
nous Shales of the Marcellus Stage.
Wood, Elvira. Marcellus Limestones of Lancaster, Erie Co., N. Y.
Clarke, J. M. New Agelacrinites.
Value of Amnigenia as an Indicator of Fresh-water Deposits durinc the Devonic of
New York, Ireland and the Rhineland.
52 Clarke, J. M. Report of the State Paleontologist 1901. 28op. il. lopl.
map, I tab. July 1902. 40c.
THE UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK
56 Merrill, F. J. H. Description of the State Geologic Map of 1901. 42?.
2 maps, tab. Nov. 1902. Free.
63 Clarke. J. M. & Luther, D. D. Stratigraphy of Cananadigua and Naples
Quadrangles. ySp. map. June 1904. 25c.
65 Clarke J- M. Catalogue of Type Specimens of Paleozoic Fossils in the
New York State Museum. 848p.' May 1903. $1.20 cloth.
69 Report of the State Paleontologist 1902. 464P. 52pl. 7 maps. Nov.
1903. $1, doth.
77 Gushing, H. P. Geology of the Vicinity of Little Falls, Herkimer Co.
98p. il. i5pl. 2 maps. Jan. 1905. 30c.
80 Clarke, J. M. Report of the State Paleontologist 1903. 396p. 29pl.
2 maps. Feb. 1905. 85c, cloth.
81 Clarke, J. M. & Luther, D. D. Watkins and Elmira Quadrangles. 32P.
map. Mar. 1905. 25c.
82 Geologic Map of the TuUj^ Quadrangle. 4op. map. Apr. 1905. 20c.
83 Woodworth, J. B. Pleistocene Geology of the Mooers Quadrangle. 62p.
25pl. map. June 1905. 25c
84 Ancient Water Levels of the Champlain and Hudson Valleys. 2o6p.
il. iipl. 18 maps. July 1905. 45c.
90 Ruedemann, Rudolf. Cephalopoda of Beekmantown and Ohazy For-
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92 Grabau, A. W. Guide to the Geology and Paleontology of the Schoharie
Region. 314P. il. 26pl. map. Apr. 1906. 75c, cloth.
95 Gushing, H. P. Geology of the Northern Adirondack Region. i88p.
i5pl. 3 maps. Sept. 1905. 30c.
96 Ogilvie, L H. Geolog}' of the Paradox Lake Quadrangle. 54p. il. i7pl.
map. Dec. 1905. 30c,
99 Luther, D. D. Geology of the Buffalo Quadrangle. 32p. map. May
loi Geology of the Penn Yan-Hammondsport Quadrangles. 2 8p.
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106 Fairchild, H. L. Glacial Waters in the Erie Basin. 88p. i4ph 9 maps.
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107 Woodworth, J- B.; Hartnagel, C. A.; Whitlock, H. P.; Hudson, G. H. ;
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54pl. map. May 1907. 90c, cloth.
Contents: Woodworth, J. B. Postglacial Faults of Eastern New York.
Hartnagel, C. A. Stratigraphic Relations of the Oneida Conglomerate.
— ■ — • Upper Siluric and Lower Devonic Formations of the Skunnemunk Mountain Region.
Whitlock, H. P. Minerals from Lyon Mountain, Clinton Co.
Hudson, G. H. On Some Pelmatozoa from the Chazy Limestone of New York.
Clarke, J. M. Some New Devonic Fossils.
— ■ — ■ An Interesting Style of Sand-filled Vein.
Eurypterus Shales of the Shawangunk Mountains in Eastern New York.
White, David. .\ Remarkable Fossil Tree Trunk from the Middle Devonic of New York.
Berkey, C. P. Str nural and Stratigraphic Features of the Basal Gneisses of the High-
lands. ^ H
III Fairchild, H. L. Drumlins of New York. 6op. 28pl. 19 maps. July
1907. Out of print.
114 Hartnagel, C. A. Geologic Map of the Rochester and Ontario Beach
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115 Cushing, H. P. Geology of the Long Lake Quadrangle. 88p. 2opU
map. Sept. 1907. 25c.
118 Clarke, J. M. & Luther, D. D. Geologic Maps and Descriptions of the
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sop. i6pl. 4 maps. Jan. 1908. 35c.
126 Miller, W. J. Geology of the Remsen Quadrangle. 54P- ih upL map.
Jan. 1909. 25c.
127 Fairchild, H. L. Glacial Waters in Central New York. 64p. 2 7pl. 15
maps. Mar. 1909. Out of print.
£28 Luther, D. D. Geology of the Geneva-Ovid Quadrangles. 44p. map.
Apr. 1909. 20c.
135 Miller, W. J. Geology of the Port Leyden Quadrangle, Lewis County,
N. Y. 62p. il. iipl. map. Jan. 1910. 25c.
137 Luther, D. D. Geology of the Auburn-Genoa Quadrangles. 36p. map.
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138 Kemp. J. F. & Ruedemann, Rudolf. Geology of the Elizabethtown
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145 Gushing, H. P.; Fairchild, H. L.; Ruedemann, Rudolf & Smyth, C. H.
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146 Berkey, C. P. Geologic Features and Problems of the New York City
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148 Gordon, C. E. Geology of the Poughkeepsie Quadrangle. 12 2p. il.
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152 Luther, D. D. Geology of the Honeoye-Wayland Quadrangles. 3op.
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153 Miller, William J. Geolog}^ of the Broadalbin Quadrangle, Fulton-
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154 Stoller, James H. Glacial Geology of the Schenectady Quadrangle. 44p.
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159 Kemp, James F. The Mineral Springs of Saratoga. Sop. il. 3pl. Apr.
160 Fairchild, H. L. Glacial Waters in the Black and Mohawk Valleys. 48p.
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162 Ruedemann, Rudolf. The Lower Siluric Shales of the Mohawk Valley.
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168 Miller, William J. Geological History of New York State. I30p. 43pl.
10 maps. Dec. 1913. 40c.
169 Gushing, H. P. & Ruedemann, Rudolf. Geology of Saratoga Springs and
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170 Miller, WiUiam J. Geology of the North Creek Quadrangle, gop. il. I4pl.
Feb. 1914. 25c.
171 Hopkins, T. C. The Geology of the Syracuse Quadrangle. Sop. il. 20pl.
map. July 1914. 25c.
172 Luther, D. D. Geology of the Attica and Depew Quadrangles. 32p. map.
August 1914. 15c.
Miller, William J. The Geology of the Lake Pleasant Quadrangle. In press.
StoUer, James H. Glacial Geology of the Saratoga Quadrangle. In press.
Miller, William J. Geology of the Blue Mountain Quadrangle. Prepared.
Martin, James C. & Chadwick, George H. Geology of the Canton Quad-
Luther, D. D. Geology of the Phelps Quadrangle. In preparation.
Whitnall, H. O. Geology of the Morrisville Quadrangle. Prepared.
Hudson, G. H. Geology of Valcour Island. In preparation.
Economic Geology. 3 Smock, J. C. Building Stone in the State of New
York. i54p. Mar. 1888. Out of print.
7 — First Report on the Iron Mines and Iron Ore Districts in the State
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ID Building Stone in New York. 2iop. map, tab. Sept. 1890. Not
11 Merrill, F. J. H. Salt and Gypsum Industries of New York. 94p. lapl.
2 maps, II tab. Apr. 1893. Not available.
12 Ries, Heinrich. Clay Industries of New York. 174P. il. ipl. map. Mar.
15 Merrill, F. J. H. Mineral Resources of New York. 240P. a maps.
Sept. 1895. [50c]
17 Road Materials and Road Building in New York. 52p. i4pl.
2 maps. Oct. 1897. 15c.
30 Orton, Edward. Petroleum and Natural Gas in New York. 13 6p. il.
3 maps. Nov. 1899. 15c.
35 Ries, Heinrich. Clays of New York; their Properties and Uses. 4S6p.
i4opl. map. June 1900. Out of print. ^
44 Lime and Cement Industries of New York; Eckel, E. C. Chapters
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6 1 Dickinson, H. T. Quarries of Bluestone and Other Sandstones in New
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85 Rafter, G. W. Hydrology of New York State. 902p. il. 44pl. 5 maps.
May 1905. $1.50, cloth.
93 Newland, D. H. Mining and Quarry Industry of New York. ySp,
July 1905. Out of print.
100 McCourt, W. E. Fire Tests of Some New York Building Stones. 4op.
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102 Newland, D. H. Mining and Quarry Industry of New York 1905.
i62p. June 1906. 25c.
112 — — Mining and Quarry Industry of New York 1906. 82p. July
1907. Out of print.
119 & Kemp, J. F. Geology of the Adirondack Magnetic Iron Ores
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8 maps. Apr. 1908. 35c.
120 Newland, D. H. Mining and Quarry Industry of New York 1907. 82p.
July 1908. 15c.
123 & Hartnagel, C. A. Iron Ores of the Clinton Formation in New
York State. 76p. il. i4pl. 3 maps. Nov. 1908. 25c.
132 Newland, D. H. Mining and Quarry Industry of New York 1908. gSp.
July 1909. 15c.
i;2 Mining and Quarry Industry of New York for 1909. 98p. Aug.
1 9 1 o . Not available.
143 Gypsum Deposits of New York. 94p. 2opl. 4 maps. Oct. 1910 356.
151 Mining and Quarry Industry of New York 1910. 82p. June 191 1. 15c.
161 MiningandQuarry Industry of New York 191 1. Ii4p. July 1912. 20c.
166 Mining and Quarry Industry of New York 1912. Ii4p. August 1913.
174 Mining and Quarry Industry of New York 1913. in p. Dec. 1914.
178 — — Mining and Quarry Industry of New York 1914. 88p. Nov. 1915. 15c.
181 The Quarry Materials of New York. 2i2p. 34 pi. Jan. 1916. 40c.
Mineralogy. 4 Nason, F. L. Some New York Minerals and Their Localities.
2 2p. ipl. Aug. 1888. Free.
58 Whitlock, H. P. Guide to the Mineralogic Collections of the New York
State Museum, isop. il. 39pl. n models. Sept. 1902. 40c.
70 New York Mineral Localities, nop. Oct. 1903. 20c.
98 Contributions from the Mineralogic Laboratory. 38p. 7pl. Dec.
1905. 0^^t of print.
Zoology. I Marshall, W. B. Preliminary List of New York Unionidae.
2op. Mar. 1892. Not available.
9 Beaks of Unionidae Inhabiting the Vicinity of Albany, N. Y. 3op.
I pi. Aug. 1890, Free.
29 Miller, G. S., jr. Preliminary List of New York 3Iammals. 124P. Oct.
33 Farr, M. S. Check List of New York Birds. 224P. Apr. 1900. 25c.
38 Miller, G. S., jr. Key to the Land Mammals of Northeastern North
America. io6p. Oct. 1900. 15c.
40 Simpson, G. B. Anatomy and Physiology of Polygyra albolabris and
Limax maximus and Embryology of Limax maximus. 82p. 28pl. Oct.
43 Kellogg, J. L. Clam and Scallop Industries of New York. 36p. 2pl.
map. Apr. 1901. Free.
51 Eckel, E. C. &■ Paulmier, F. C. Catalogue of Reptiles and Batrachians
of New York. 64p. il. ipl. Apr. 1902. Out of print.
Eckel, E. C. Serpents of Northeastern United States.
Paulmier, F. C. Lizards, Tortoises and Batrachians of New York.
60 Bean, T. H. Catalogue of the Fishes of New York. 784P. Feb. 1903-
71 Kellogg, J. L. Feeding Habits and Growth of Venus mercenaria. 3op.
4pl. Sept. 1903. Free.
88 Letson, Elizabeth J. Check List of the MoUusca of New York. ii6p.
May 1905. 20c.
91 Paulmier, F. C. Higher Crustacea of New York City. ySp. il. June
130 Shufeldt, R. W. Osteology of Birds. 382P. il. 26pl. May 1909. 50c.
Entomology. 5 Lintner, J. A. White Grub of the May Beetle. 34p. il.
Nov. 1888. Free.
6 Cut-worms. 38p. il. Nov. 1888. Free.
13 San Jos6 Scale and Some Destructive Insects of New York State.
54p. 7pl. Apr. 1895. 15c.
20 Felt, E. P. Elm Leaf Beetle in New York State. 46p. il. 5pl. June
i8g8. Free. - 3 ..!
23 14th Report of the State Entomologist 1898. isop. il. gpl. Dec.
24 Memorial of the Life and Entomologic Work of J. A. Lintner Ph.D.
State Entomologist 1874-98; Index to Entomologist's Reports 1-13. 3i6p.
ipl. Oct. 1899. 35c.
Supplement to 14th report of the State Entomologist.
26 Collection, Preservation and Distribution .of New York Insects.
36p. il. Apr. 1899. Out of print.
27 Shade Tree Pests in New York State. 26p. il. 5pl. May 1899.
31 15th Report of the State Entomologist 1899. i28p. June 1900.
30 1 6th Report of the State Entomologist 1900. ii8p. i6pl. Mar.
37 Catalogue of Some of the More Important Injurious and Beneficial
Insects of New York State. 54p. il. Sept. 1900. Free.
46 Scale Insects of Importance and a List of the Species in New York
State. 94p. il. iSpl. June 1901. 25c.
47 Needham, J. G. & Betten, Cornelius. Aquatic Insects in the Adiron-
dacks. 234p. il. 36pl. Sept. 1901. 45c.
S3 Felt, E. P. 17th Report of the State Entomologist 1901. 232P. il. 6pl.
Aug. 1902. Out of print.
57 Elm Leaf Beetle in New York State. 46p. il. 8pl. Aug. 1902.
Out of print.
This is a revision of Bulletin 20 containing the more essential facts observed since that
59 Grapevine Root Worm. 4op. 6pl. Dec. 1902. Not available.
64 i8th Report of the State Entomologist 1902. nop. 6pl. May
68 Needham, J. G. & others. Aquatic Insects in New York. 322P. 52pl.
Aug. 1903. 80c, cloth.
72 Felt, E. P. Grapevine Root Worm. 58p. i3pl. Nov. 1903. 20c.
This is a revision of Bulletin 59 containing the more essential facts observed since that
74 & Joutel, L. H. Monograph of the Genus Saperda. 88p. i4pl
June 1904. 25c.
76 Felt, E. P. 19th Report of the State Entomologist 1903. iSop. 4pl
79 Mosquitos or Culicidae of New York. i64p. il. 57pl. tab. Oct
86 Needham, J. G. & others. May Flies and Midges of New York. 3S2p
il. 37pl. June 1905. Out of print.
97 Felt, E. P. 20th Report of the State Entomologist 1904. 246P. il. igpl
Nov. 1905. 40c.
103 Gipsv and Brown Tail Moths. 44p. lopl. July 1906. 15c.
THE UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK
104 2ist Report of the State Entomologist 1905. i44p. lopl. Aug.
109 Tussock Moth and Elm Leaf Beetle. 34p. 8pl. Mar. 1907. 20c.
no 22d Report of the State Entomologist 1906. i52p. 3pl. June
124 23d Report of the State Entomologist 1907. 542p. il. 44pl. Oct.
129 Control of Household Insects. 48p. il. May 1909. Out of print.
134 24th Report of the State Entomologist 1908. 2o8p. il. i7pl.
Sept. 1909. 35c.
136 Control of Flies and Other Household Insects. 56p. il. Feb.
This is a revision of Bulletin 129 containing the more essential facts observed since
that was prepared.
141 Felt, E. P. 25th Report of the State Entomologist 1909. T78p. il. 22pl.
July 1 9 10. Not available.
147 26th Report of the State Entomologist 1910. i82p. il 35pl. Mar.
155 27th Report of the State Entomologist 191 1. I98p. il. 27pl. Jan.
156 Elm Leaf Beetle and White-Marked Tussock Moth. 35p. 8pl. Jan.
165 28th Report of the State Entomologist 1912. 266p. I4pl. July 1913.
175 29th Report of the State Entomologist 1913. 258 p. 16 pi. April
180 30th Report of the State Entomologist 1914. 336p. 19 pi. Jan. 1916.
Needham, J. G. Monograph on Stone Flies. In preparation.
Botany. 2 Peck, C. H. Contributions to the Botany of the State of New
York. 72p. 2pl. May 1887. Free.
8 Boleti of the United States. 98p. Sept. 1889. Out of print.
25 Report of the State Botanist 1898. 76p. 5pl. Oct. 1899. Out of
28 Plants of North Elba. 2o6p. map. June 1899. 20c.
54 Report of the State Botanist 1901. 58p. 7pl. Nov. 1902. 40c.
67 Report of the State Botanist 1902. 196P. 5pl. May 1903. 50c.
75 Report of the State Botanist 1903. 7op. 4pl. 1904. 40c.
94 Report of the State Botanist 1904. 6op. lopl. July 1905. 40c.
105 Report of the State Botanist 1905. io8p. i2pl. Aug. 1906. 50c.
116 Report of the State Botanist 1906. i2op. 6pl. July 1907. 35c.
122 Report of the State Botanist 1907. i78p. spl. Aug. 1908. 40c.
131 Report of the State Botanist 1908. 202p. 4pl. July 1909. 40c.
139 Report of the State Botanist 1909. ii6p. lopl. May 1910. 450.
150 Report of the State Botanist 1910. loop. 5pl. May 1911. 30c.
157 Report of the State Botanist 191 1. I40p. 9pl. Mar. 19 12. 35c.
167 Report of the State Botanist 1912. i38p. 4.pl. Sept. 1913. 30c.
176 Report of the State Botanist 1913. 78p. i7pl. June 1915. 20c.
179 Report of the State Botanist 1914. io8p. ipl. Dec. 1915. 20c.
Archeology. 16 Beauchamp, W. M. Aboriginal Chipped Stone Implements
of New York. 86p. 23pl. Oct. 1897. Not available.
18 Polished Stone Articles Used by the New York Aborigines. io4p.
35pl. Nov. 1897. 25c.
22 Earthenware of the New York Aborigines. 78p. 33pl. Oct. 1898.
32 Aboriginal Occupation of New York. 190P. i6pl. 2 maps. Mar.
41 Wampum and Shell Articles Used by New York Indians. i66p.
28pl. Mar. 1901. Out of print.
50 Horn and Bone Implements of the New York Indians. ii2p. 43pl.
Mar. 1902. Out of print.
55 Metallic Implements of the New York Indians. 94p. 38pl. June
73 Metallic Ornaments of the New York Indians. i2 2p. 37pl. Dec.
1903. Not available.
78 History of the New York Iroquois. 34op. lypl. map. Feb. 1905.
87 Perch Lake Mounds. 84p. i2pl. Apr. 1905. 20c.
89 Aboriginal Use of Wood in New York. igop. 35pl. June 1905.
108 Aboriginal Place Names of New York. 336p. May 1907. 40c.
113 Civil, Religious and Mourning Councils and Ceremonies of Adop-
tion. ii8p. 7pl. June 1907. 25c.
117 Parker, A. C. An JErie Indian Village and Burial Site. io2p. 38pl.
Dec. 1907. 30c.
125 Converse, H. M. & Parker, A. C. Iroquois Myths and Legends. 196P.
il. iipl. Dec. 1908. 50c.
144 Parker, A. C. Iroquois Uses of Maize and Other Food Plants. i2op.
il. 3ipl. Nov. 1910. Not available.
163 The Code of Handsome Lake. I44p. 23pl. Nov. 19 12. Not available.
The Constitution of the Five Nations. In press.
Miscellaneous. 62 Merrill, F. J. H. Directory of Natural History Museums
in United States and Canada. 236P. Apr. 1903. 30c.
66 Ellis, Mary. Index to Publications of the New York State Natural
History Survey and New York State Museum 183 7-1 90 2. 4i8p. June
^903- 75c, cloth.
Museum memoirs 1889-date. 4to.
1 Beecher, C. E. & Clarke, J. M. Development of Some Silurian Brachi-
opoda. 96p. 8pl. Oct. 1889. $1.
2 Hall, James & Clarke, J. M. Paleozoic Reticulate Sponges. 3 Sop. il. 7opl.
1898. $2, cloth.
3 Clarke, J. M. The Oriskany Fauna of Becraft Mountain, Columbia Co.,
N. Y. i28p. 9pl. Oct. 1900. 80c.
4 Peck, C. H. N. Y. Edible Fungi, 1895-99. io6p. 25pl. Nov. 1900. Not
■ i-This includes revised descriptions and illustrations of fungi reported in the 49th, sist and
S2d reports of the State Botanist.
5 Clarke, J. M. & Ruedemann, Rudolf. Guelph Formation and Fauna of
New York State. 196P. 2ipl. July 1903. $1.50, cloth.
6 Clarke, J. M. Naples Fauna in Western New York. 268p. 26pl. map.
1904. $2, cloth.
7 Ruedemann, Rudolf. Graptolites of New York. Pt i Graptolites of the
Lower Beds. 35op. i7pl. Feb. 1905. $1.50, cloth.
8 Felt, E. P. Insects Affecting Park and Woodland Trees, v.i. 46op.
il. 48pl. Feb. 1906. $2. $0, cloth; v. 2. 548p.il.22pl. Feb. 1907. $2, cloth.
9 Clarke, J. M. Early Devonic of New York and Eastern North America.
Pt I. 366p. il. 7opl. 5 maps. Mar. 1908. $2.50, cloth; Pt 2. 250P. il. 36pl.
4 maps. Sept. 1909. $2, cloth.
ID Eastman, C. R. The Devonic Fishes of the New York Formations.
236P. i5pl. 1907. $1.25, cloth.
11 Ruedemann, Rudolf. Graptolites of New York. Pt 2 Graptolites of
i 'the Higher Beds. 584P. il. 3ipl. 2 tab. Apr. 1908. $2.50, cloth.
12 Eaton, E. H. Birds of New York. v. i. 5oip. il. 42pl. Apr. 1910.
$3, cloth; V. 2, 7l9p. il. 64 pi. July 1914. $4, cloth.
13 Whitlock, H.P. Calcitesof NewYoric. 190P. il. 27pl. Oct. 1910. $1, cloth.
14 Clarke, J. M. & Ruedemann, Rudolf. The Eurypterida of New York. v. i.
Text. 44op. il. v. 2 Plates. i88p. 88pl. Dec. 191 2. $4, cloth.
Natural History of New York. 30V. il. pi. maps. 4to. Albany 1842-94.
DIVISION I ZOOLOGY. De Kay, James E. Zoology of New York; or. The
New York Fauna; comprising detailed descriptions of all the animals
hitherto observed within the State of New York with brief notices Of
those occasionally found near its borders, and accompanied by appropri.
ate illustrations. 5v. il. pi. maps. sq. 4to. Albany 1842-44. Out of print ^
Historical introduction to the series by Gov. W. H. Seward. 178P.
THE UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK
V. I pti Mammalia. 131 + 46p. 33pl. 1842.
300 copies with hand-colored plates,
V. 2 pt2 Birds. 12 + sSop. i4ipl. 1844.
V. 3 pt3 Reptiles and Amphibia. 7 + 98p. pt 4 Fishes. 15 + 4iSp. 1842.
pt 3-4 bound together.
V. 4 Plates to accompany v. 3. Reptiles and Amphibia. 23pl. Fishes.
300 copies with hand-colored plates.
V. 5 pt5 MoUusca. 4 + 271P. 4opl. pt 6 Crustacea. 7op. i3pl. 1843-44.
Hand-colored plates; ptS-6 bound together.
DIVISION 2 BOTANY. Torrcy, John. Flora of the State of New York ; com-
prising full descriptions of all the indigenous and naturalized plants hith-
erto discovered in the State, with remarks on their economical and medical
properties. 2V. il. pi. sq. 4to. Albany 1843. Out of print.
V. I Flora of the State of New York. 12 + 484P. 72pl. 1843.
300 copies with hand-colored plates.
V. 2 Flora of the State of New York. 5 72p. 89PI. 1843.
300 copies with hand-colored plates.
DIVISION 3 MINERALOGY. Beck, Lewis C. Mineralogy of New York; com-
prising detailed descriptions of the minerals hitherto found in the State
of New York, and notices of their uses in the arts and agriculture, il. pi.
sq. 4to. Albany 1842. Out of print.
V. I pti Economical Mineralogy. pt2 Descriptive Mineralogy. ^24 -f- 536p.
8 plates additional to those printed as part of the text.
DIVISION 4 GEOLOGY. Mather, W. W. ; Emmons, Ebenezer; Vanuxem, Lard-
ner & Hall, James. Geology of New York. 4V. il. pi. sq. 4to. Albany
1842-43. Out of print.
V. I pti Mather, W. W. First Geological District. 37 4- 653P. 46pl. 1843.
V. 2 pt2 Emmons, Ebenezer. Second Geological District. 10 -I- 43 7p.
V. 3 pt3 Vanuxem, Lardner. Third Geological District. 3o6p. 1842.
V 4 pt4 Hall, James. Fourth Geological District. 22 -f 683P. iQpl.
DIVISION 5 AGRICULTURE. Emmons, Ebenezer. Agriculture of New York ;
comprising an account of the classification, composition and distribution
of the soils and rocks and the natural waters of the different geological
formations, together with a condensed view of the meteorology and agri-
cultural productions of the State. 5V. il. pi. sq. 4to. Albany 1846-54.
Out of print.
V. I Soils of the State, Their Composition and Distribution. 11 -1- 371P. 2ipl.
V. 2 Analysis of Soils, Plants, Cereals, etc. 8 4- 343 + 46p. 42pl. 1849.
With hand-colored plates.
V. 3 Fruits, etc. 8 -f- 34op. 1851.
V. 4 Plates to accompany v. 3. 9Spl. 1851.
V. 5 Insects Injurious to Agriculture. 8 -f 272P. 5opl. 1854.
With hand-colored plates.
DIVISION 6 PALEONTOLOGY. Hall, James. Paleontology of New York. 8v,
il. pi. sq. 4to. Albany 1847-94. Bound in cloth.
v. I Organic Remains of the Lower Division of the New York System.
23 + 338p. 99pl. 1847. Out of print.
V. 2 Organic Remains of Lower Middle Division of the New York System.
8 + 362P. ro4pl. 1852. Out of print.
v. 3 Organic Remains of the Lower Helderberg Group and the Oriskany
Sandstone, pt i, text. 12 + 532P. 1859. [$3.50"'
pt 2. i42pl. 1861. [$2.50]
V. 4 Fossil Brachiopoda of the Upper Helderberg, Hamilton, Portage and
Chemung Groups, ii + i + 428p. 69pl. 1867. $2.50.
V. 5 pt I I/amellibranchiata i. Monomyaria of the Upper Helderberg,
Hamilton and Chemung Groups. 18 + 268p. 45pl. 1884. $2.50.
Lainellibranchiata 2. Dimyaria of the Upper Helderberg, Ham-
ilton, Portage and Chemung Groups. 62 + 293P. 5ipl. 1885. $2.50.
pt 2 Gasteropoda, Pteropoda and Cephalopoda of the Upper Helder-
berg, Hamilton, Portage and Chemung Groups. 2V. 1879. v. i, text.
15 + 492P.; V.2. i2opl. $2.50 for 2 V.
& Simpson, George B. v. 6 Corals and Bryozoa of the Lower and Up-
per Helderberg and Hamilton Groups. 24 + 298P. 67pl. 1887. $2.50.
& Clarke, John M. v. 7 Trilobites and Other Crustacea of the Oris-
kany, Upper Helderberg, Hamilton, Portage, Chemung and Catskill
Groups. 64 + 236P. 46pl. 1888. Cont. supplement to V. 5, pt 2. Ptero-
poda, Cephalopoda and Annelida. 42p. i8pl. 1888. $2.50.
& Clarke, John M. v. 8 pt i Introduction to the Study of the Genera
of the Paleozoic Brachiopoda. 16 + 367P. 44pl. 1892. $2.50.
& Clarke, John M. v. 8 pt 2 Paleozoic P^achiopoda. 16 + 394p. 64pl.
1894. $2.50. ^^
Catalogue of the Cabinet of Natural History of the State of New York and
of the Historical and Antiquarian Collection annexed thereto. 242P. 8vo.
1853. Out of print.
New York State Museum. 52p. il. 1902. Free.
Outlines, history and work of the museum'with list of staff 1902.
Paleontology. ,^i2p.^''\i899. (Jui oj pnni.
^ I Brief outline of State Museum work in paleontology under heads: Definition; Relation to
biology; Relation to stratigraphy; History of paleontology in New York.
Guide to Excursions in the Fossiliferous Rocks of New York. i2 4p. 1899.
Itineraries of 32 trips covering nearly the entire series of Paleozoic rocks, prepared specially
for the use of teachers and students desiring tc acquaint themselves more intimately with the
classic rocks of this State.; =.
Entomology. i6p. J1899. Out of print.
Economic Geology. ,'44p. 1904. Free.
Insecticides and Fungicides. 2op. 1909. Free."^
Classification of New York Series of Geologic Formations. 32p. 1903. Out
of print. Revised edition. 96p. 1912. Free.
Geologic maps. Merrill, F. J. H. Economic and Geologic Map of the
State of New York; issued as part of Museum Bulletin 15 and 48th Museum
Report, V. i. 59 x 67 cm. 1894. Scale 14 miles to i inch. 15c.
Map of the State of New York Showing the Location of Quarries of
Stone Used for Building and Road Metal. 1897. Out of print.
Map of the State of New York Showing the Distribution of the Rocks
Most Useful for Road Metal. 1897. Out of print.
Geologic Map of New York. 1901. Scale 5 miles to i inch. In atlas
form $2. Lower Hudson sheet 60c. ';' '.
(The lower Hudson sheet, geologically colored, comprises Rockland, Orange, Dutchess,
Putnam, Westchester, New York, Richmond, Kings, Queens and Nassau counties, and parts
of Sullivan, Ulster and Suffolk i^ounties; also northeastern New Tersey and part of western
Map of New York Showing the Surface Configuration and Water Sheds
1901. Scale 12 miles to i inch. 15c.
Map of the State of New York Showing the Location of Its Economic
Deposits. 1904. Scale 12 miles to i inch. 15c.
Geologic maps on the United States Geological Survey topographic base.
Scale I in. = I m. Those marked with an' asterisk have also been pub-
*Albany county. 1898. Out of print.
Area around Lake Placid. 1898.
Vicinity of Frankfort Hill [parts of Herkimer and Oneida counties]. 1899.
THE UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK
Rockland county. 1899.
Amsterdam quadrangle. 1900.
*Parts of Albany and Rensselaer counties. lyoi. Out 0} print.
*Niagara river. 190 1. 25c.
Part of Clinton county. 1901.
Oyster Bay and Hempstead quadrangles on Long Island. 190 1.
Portions of Clinton and Essex counties. 1902.
Part of town of Northumberland, Saratoga CO. 1903.
Union Springs, Cayuga county and vicinity. 1903.
*01ean quadrangle. 1903. Free.
*Becraft Mt with 2 sheets of sections. (Scale i in. = 2 m.) 1903. 20c,
*Canandaigua-Naples quadrangles. 1904. 20c.
*Little Falls quadrangle. 1905. Free.
*Watkins-Elmira quadrangles. 1905. 20c.
*Tully quadrangle. 1905. Free.
*Salamanca quadrangle. 1905. Free.
*Mooers quadrangle. 1905. Free.
Paradox Lake quadrangle. 1905.
♦Buffalo quadrangle. 1906. Free.
*Penn Yan-Hammondsport quadrangles. 1906. 20c
*Rochester and Ontario Beach quadrangles. 20c.
♦Long Lake quadrangle. Free.
♦Nunda-Portage quadrangles. 20c.
♦Rerasen quadrangle. 1908. Free.
*Geneva-Ovid quadrangles. 1909. 20c.
♦Port Leyden quadrangle. 19 10. Free.
♦Auburn-Genoa quadrangles. 19 10. 20c.
♦Elizabethtown and Port Henry quadrangles. 1910. 15c.
♦Alexandria Bay quadrangle. 1910. Free.
♦Cape Vincent quadrangle. 1910. Free,
♦Clayton quadrangle. 1910. Free.
♦Grindstone quadrangle. 1910. Free.
♦Theresa quadrangle. 191 o. Free.
*Poughkeepsie quadrangle. 191 1. Free.
♦Honeoye-Wayland quadrangle. 191 1. 20c.
*Broadalbin quadrangle. 191 1. Free. i
♦Schenectady quadrangle. 191 1. Free.
♦Saratoga-Schuylerville quadrangles. 1914. 20c.
♦North Creek quadrangle. 1914. Free.
♦Syracuse quadrangle. 1914. Free.
♦Attica-Depew quadrangles. 1914. 20c.
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